Independent Clause (a.k.a. Complete Sentence) It is. Subject/ Verb
Recognizing a Complete Sentence • For a sentence to be a complete sentence (independent clause), there must be a subject and verb, and you must be able to identify them, as in the next two examples. • Also, pay attention to helping verbs, like To Be: I am/ You are/ He, She, It is
Simple Sentences Edward loves Mary. Mary is afraid of Edward.
Joining Clauses Edward is outside of Mary’s window. Mary is getting her gun. Edward is knocking on the glass; therefore, Mary is putting a round in the chamber.
Main Rule of the Semicolon • The one main rule of the semicolon is to join two complete sentences together. • In other words, you will need to have a subject and verb on one side, and you will need a subject and verb on the other side.
COLONS Mary has three favorite guns: the uzi, glock, and AR-15. Mary has many favorite guns, such as: the uzi, glock, and AR-15. Mary’s favorite guns are: the uzi, glock, and AR-15. YES NO NO
Main Rule of the Colon • The main rule of the colon is that you must have a complete sentence in front of/before the colon. • What comes after the colon is fairly open ended: a list, a quote, a word, an appositive, another sentence.
F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. Edward is not afraid of being shot at. He has a bullet proof vest. Edward is not afraid of being shot at, for he has a bullet proof vest.
The Main Rule of the FANBOYS • The main rule of the FANBOYS is the same as the semicolon. You must have a complete sentence before the comma FANBOY and you must have a complete sentence after it. • Pay close attention to all of the following examples
F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. Mary sees the vest. She is still going to shoot. Mary sees the vest, and she is still going to shoot, for she has hollow point bullets.
F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. Edward does not care if he gets shot. He does not care if he dies tonight. Edward does not care if he gets shot, nor does he care if he dies tonight.
F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. Edward has already been arrested for stalking. He is still doing the same thing. Edward has already been arrested for stalking, but he is still doing the same thing.
F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. Mary will probably shoot Edward. She will call the cops. Edward is not afraid of Mary or the cops. Edward will never learn. Mary will probably shoot Edward, or she will call the cops, yet Edward is not afraid of Mary or the cops, so Edward will never learn.
Common FANBOYS Errors • The comma comes before the FANBOYS! • Remember, the comma FANBOY comes between two complete sentences • You do not use semicolons with FANBOYS! • You cannot put a comma in front of every for, and, nor, but, or, yet, & so – only if the FANBOY COMES BETWEEN TWO SENTENCES!
COORDINATING ADJECTIVES When Edward heard the sirens and gun shots, he started to run. He found a cold, dark overpass and climbed up the incline and snuck into the shallow, tight nook at the top. Cold and Dark = cold, dark Shallow and Tight = shallow, tight
ITEMS IN A SERIES (a.k.a. the list) It is no surprise that Edward’s favorite writers are J.D. Salinger, the Marquis de Sade, and Lewis Caroll. Edward was arrested in Tampa, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; and Los Angeles, California.
The Oxford Comma This stalker story is dedicated to my parents, God and Ronald McDonald. Can this sentence be interpreted in more than one way? Who are my parents?
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Edward wears his sunglasses. He feels invisible. When Edward wears his sunglasses, he feels invisible. Edward feels invisible when he wears his sunglasses.
Common Subordinations • When • If • Since • Because • Although • So that • Whenyou start with a subordination,you need a comma between the two clauses. • You do not need a comma whenthe subordination comes between the two clauses.
NON-ESSENTIAL CLAUSES Edward, a sick and deranged young man,feels that he does not need to seek professional help. Edward feels that he does not need to seek professional help. He, however, has signed up at his local Stalker’s Anonymous group. He has signed up at his local S.A. group.
The Importance of the Comma Woman without her man is nothing. Woman, without her, man is nothing. Woman, without her man, is nothing.