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John 14-16

John 14-16. The Farewell Discourse. Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel. Ch. 1 Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12 Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs")

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John 14-16

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  1. John 14-16 The Farewell Discourse

  2. Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1 Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12 Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs") Theme: Through signs and discourses, Jesus reveals himself as the Son of God, sent to save the world, but is rejected by the world. Ch. 2-4 Images of New Salvation Ch. 5-10 Growing hostility Ch. 11-12 Final rejection Ch. 13-20 Jesus Before the Disciples("Book of Passion/Glory") Theme: Having been rejected by the world, Jesus prepares the disciples for his departure to the Father. Ch. 13 Last Supper Ch. 14-16 Farewell Discourse Ch. 17 Jesus’ “High Priestly” Prayer Ch. 18-19 Passion Narrative Ch. 20 Resurrection Ch. 21 Appendix: Appearance in Galilee

  3. John 14-16The Farewell Discourse 14:1-31 Departure and Return of Jesus(Reassurance) • Jesus’ departure prepares a place for disciples (v. 1-4). • Acknowledges that disciples’ hearts are “troubled” (v. 1). • Ch. 14 emphasizes reassuring promises. • His departure secures a “dwelling place” (monē) in the Father’s “house” (v. 2-3). • “Heavenly home” after death or • “Home” with God already in this life (cf. v. 23)? • Old translation “mansions” (KJV) suggested heavenly palaces. • Father’s “house” with many “dwelling places” may be Temple imagery (Hull) – by death/resurrection Jesus becomes true Temple. • Jesus will “come again” to take them “to myself” (v. 3). • Future Parousia at end of the age. • Post-resurrection appearances (Culpepper). • Coming of the Spirit. • Meeting the individual believer at death.

  4. 14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus– cont. • Jesus is the way to the Father (v. 5-7). • “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (sixth “I am” with predicate). • Jesus is the way to God because he is the revelation of God. • Jesus has revealed the Father (v. 8-11). • To see Jesus is to see God. • His words and deeds are words and deeds of God. • Jesus’ departure empowers the church’s mission (v. 12-14). • Believers will do “greater works than these.” • Ascension and coming of Spirit empowers universal mission. • Promise of answered prayer (which empowers mission) is conditioned on asking “in Jesus name” (i.e., consistent with his character). • The Father will send “another Paraclete” (v. 15-17). • Paraclete = Advocate; Defender; Comforter; Counselor; Helper. • Spirit takes the place of Jesus and makes him present in world. • Other functions: teaching the truth of Christ (old and new); putting the world on trial.

  5. 14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus– cont. • Jesus and the Father will come and dwell with those who love and obey him (v. 18-24). • “I will not leave you orphaned; I am coming to you. In a little while the world will no longer see me, but you will see me” (v. 18-19). • Post-resurrection appearances, coming of Spirit, or Parousia? • Does Jn. sharply distinguish these? • Those who love Jesus keep his commandments (v. 15, 21, 23-24). • Love is demonstrated by obedience. • Spirit is promised to those who love/obey Jesus. • “We will come and make our home (monē = dwelling place; cf. v. 2) with them” (v. 23). • Continuing presence of Jesus and Father through in-dwelling Spirit. • Focus here is not on future abiding with Christ in heaven but on present abiding of Christ with believers now. • The Paraclete will teach you all things (v. 25-26). • Teaches truth of Christ by reminding of what Jesus taught and helping them understand (cf. 2:17, 22; 12:16). • Teaches truth of Christ by revealing new truth. • Probably alludes to revelation through prophets in Johannine church. • Test of prophecy is consistency with revelation in Jesus.

  6. 14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus– cont. 8. Closing (v. 27-31)? • Jesus leaves his “peace” (shalom) with the disciples. • “Peace” = “wholeness” of salvation in kingdom of God—for which Jesus is about to die. • Announces that “the ruler of this world is coming”—final conflict is at hand. • “Rise, let us be on our way” seems to end the discourse.

  7. 15:1-17 Jesus the True Vine(Challenge) • Background • Vine is frequent figure for Israel in OT (cf. Isa. 5, “Song of Vineyard”). • Theme of judgment is always present. • “I am the true vine…I am the vine, you are the branches.” • 7th “I am” with predicate: Jesus is the true Israel. • Through Jesus, the Church becomes the “New Israel.” • The Church also stands under threat of judgment. • Unproductive branches are removed; productive ones are pruned. • Play on words in v. 2-3: • The vine is “pruned” (v. 2; kathairei = make clean or prune). • Disciples already made “clean” (v. 3; katharoi) by Jesus’ word. • Disciples “bear fruit” only through “abiding in Jesus” (v. 4-5). • Vine/branches is image of mutual indwelling of Christ/believers. • Debated whether “bearing fruit” means “winning converts” or “Christian living in general” (cf. Mt. 3:7-10; 7:15-20; Gal. 5:22-23). • “Abiding in Jesus” means keeping his commandments (v. 10). • His one commandment is to “love one another as I have loved you” (v. 12-17). • In FG, love command is limited to Christian community. • Standard of Christian love is sacrificial love of Jesus.

  8. 15:18-16:4a The World Will Hate You(Warning) • Disciples are warned of persecution. • Hated, persecuted, put out of synagogues, killed. • FG written against background of such conflict. • Disciples belong not to world but to Christ (v. 18-19). • World will hate them as it hates Christ. • Paraclete will be “Advocate” in midst of persecution (v. 25-26). • Paraclete will “bear witness” and enable disciples to “bear witness” (cf. Mk. 13:11; Mt. 10: 19-20). • “Bear witness” = martyreō g“martyr” (lit., “witness”). • Warning against religious zeal (16:1-4a). • Being “put out of synagogue” (v. 2) reflects church-synagogue conflict at time of Evangelist. • Seeking to kill as act of devotion to God (v. 2) is misguided zeal.

  9. 16:4b-15 Work of the Paraclete • Jesus’ departure is to disciples’ benefit, so Paraclete can come (v. 7). • Paraclete will “convict” the world of sin (v. 8-11). • “Convince” – prick conscience; prepare for grace. • “Prove wrong” – judgment occurs in rejection of Jesus. • Paraclete will guide believers “into all the truth” (v. 12-15). • Spirit will teach “many things” the disciples were not yet ready for. • Christian faith is not static/unchanging but dynamic/growing. • Spirit provides guidance in applying truth of gospel in fresh ways for each new generation. • FG is not content to repeat words/deeds of historical Jesus; allows Spirit of risen Lord to speak in new ways. • Test of “new truth” is continuity with Jesus (cf. 14:26).

  10. 16:16-33 Reversal of Sorrow into Joy • Riddle of the “little while” (v. 16): “A little while and you will no longer see me; again a little while and you will see me.” • First “little while” = death of Jesus (you will weep/mourn). • Second “little while” = resurrection (your pain will turn into joy). • Image of a woman in labor (v. 21). • Labor pain soon turns into joy. • Cf. apocalyptic theme of “birth-pangs of Messiah.” • Prediction of scattering, persecution, and victory (v. 32-33).

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