FACILITY AND WORK DESIGN. CHAPTER 8. DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS. LO1 Describe four layout patterns and when they should be used. LO2 Explain how to design product layouts using assembly line balancing . LO3 Explain the concepts of process layout .
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DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS
LO1Describe four layout patterns and when they should be used.
LO2Explain how to design product layouts using assembly line balancing.
LO3Explain the concepts of process layout.
LO4Describe issues related to workplace design.
LO5Describe the human issues related to workplace design.
professor Frey had just taken his operations management class on tour of Honda’s automobile plant in Marysville, Ohio. During the tour, the students had a chance to see how the facility design helped to improve the efficiency of the assembly processes for the automobiles and motorcycles they manufacture. The students were also very impressed with the level of teamwork among the employees. In the following class debriefing, Steve stated that he didn’t realize how important the design of the facility was in promoting teamwork and assuring quality. Arun couldn’t believe that they could produce so many different models in any order on the same assembly lines. Kate observed that the entire facility shows an image of safety, efficiency, professionalism, cleanliness, quality, and excitement. “In the factory, everything has its correct place. The workers know where everything is. The facility is spotless, a lot different from my dad’s machine shop.” Without hesitation she said, “Wow, I think I’ll buy a Honda!”
What do youthink?
Think of a facility in which you have conducted business—for instance, a restaurant, bank, or automobile dealership. How did the physical environment and layout enhance or degrade your customer experience?
Facility layout refers to the specific arrangement of physical facilities. Facility-layout studies are necessary whenever:
Exhibit 8.1 Product Layout for Wine Manufacturer
Exhibit 8.2 Process Layout for a Machine Shop
Exhibit 8.3 Cellular Manufacturing Layout
Source: J. T. Black, “Cellular Manufacturing Systems Reduce Set Up time, Make Small-Lot Production Economical,” Industrial Engineering Magazine, Nov. 1983. Used with permission from the author.
Exhibit 8.4 Comparison of Basic Layout Patterns
Service organizations use product, process, cellular, and fixed-position layouts to organize different types of work.
Product Layout for a Pizza Kitchen
Exhibit 8.6 A Typical Manufacturing Workstation Layout
The set of tasks to be performed and the time required to perform each task.
2. The precedence relations among the tasks—that is, the sequence in which tasks must be performed.
3. The desired output rate or forecast of demand for the assembly line.
Exhibit 8.7 A Three-Task Assembly Line
Cycle timeis the interval between successive outputs coming off the assembly line.
Cycle time (CT) is related to the output (R) by the following equation:
CT = A/R [8.2]
Minimum number of workstations required = Sum of task times/Cycle time = t/CT [8.3]
Total Time Available = (Number of work stations)×(Cycle Time) = (N )(CT ) [8.4]
Total Idle Time = (N )(CT ) − t [8.5]
Assembly-line Efficiency = t/(N ×CT ) [8.6]
Balance Delay = 1 − Assembly-line Efficiency [8.7]
Exhibit 8.8 A Typical In-Line Skate
Exhibit 8.9 Precedence Network and Workstation Assignment
WorkstationTasks Total TimeIdle Time
A 1, 2, 5 5.7 0.3
B 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 3.7 2.3
Total 9.4 2.6
Using equations [8.4] to [8.6] we may compute the following:
Total Time Available = (Number workstations)(Cycle Time) = (N )(CT ) = (2)(6) = 12 minutes
Total Idle Time = (N )(CT ) − t = (2)(6) - 9.4 = 2.6 minutes
Assembly-line Efficiency = t/(N ×CT ) = 9.4/(2 × 6) = 78.3%
What technology is needed? Employees may need a computer or access to customer records and files, special equipment, intercoms, and other forms of technology.
What must the employee be able to see?
What must the employee be able to hear?
What environmental and safety issues need to be addressed?
Exhibit 8.10 Pizza Preparation Workplace Design
A job is the set of tasks an individual performs.
Job design involves determining the specific job tasks and responsibilities, the work environment, and the methods by which the tasks will be carried out to meet the goals of operations.
Job enlargementis the horizontal expansion of the job to give the worker more variety—although not necessarily more responsibility.
Job enrichmentis vertical expansion of job duties to give the worker more responsibility.
Natural work teams, which perform entire jobs, rather than specialized, assembly-line work.
Virtual teams, in which members communicate by computer, take turns as leaders, and join and leave the team as necessary.
Self-managed teams (SMTs), which are empowered work teams that also assume many traditional management responsibilities.
What is the best way to group the work represented by the 16 work groups for an average demand of 306 outgoing wires per day? What is your line balance if peak demand is 450 wires per day? What is assembly-line efficiency for each line balance solution?
How many people are needed for outgoing wires using assembly line balancing methods versus the current staffing level of 11 full-time equivalent employees?
How many staff members do you need for the outgoing wire process if you eliminate all rework?
What are your final recommendations?