LING212Second Language Acquisition Florencia Franceschina
Terminology • Second language acquisition • Foreign language acquisition • Acquisition of additional languages • Bilingual language acquisition
L2 grammars A.k.a. interlanguage grammars (ILGs) Example: L2 speaker on Botticelli
Route of acquisition U-shaped learning Example: Myles et al. (1999)
Myles et al. (1999) L1 English/L2 French 16 adolescents Recorded 6 times over 2 years Initially drilled in using ‘chunks’: Quel âge as-tu? Comment tu t’appelles? Qu’est qu’il aime faire? etc.
Myles et al. (1999) Findings: Three question types: 1. Qs formed from chunks they had been drilled on. 2. Novel questions lacking verbs Où la piscine? 3. Novel questions with verbs
Q type Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chunk 143/186 77% 264/418 63% 47/111 42% 214/483 44% 261/622 42% 40/264 15% V-less 41/186 22% 129/418 31% 53/111 48% 235/483 49% 287/622 46% 182/264 69% With V 2/186 1% 25/418 6% 11/111 10% 34/483 7% 74/622 12% 42/264 16% Myles et al. (1999)
Route of acquisition Fixed stages of acquisition Example: Pienemann (1998)
Pienemann (1998) Stages of acquisition of word order in L2 German: • SVODie kinder spielen mim ball (the children play with the ball) • Adverb pre-posingDa kinder spielen (there children play) • Verb separationAller kinder muss die pause machen (all children must the pause make) • Verb second (V2)Dann hat sie wieder die knoch gebringt (then has she again the bone brought) • Verb final in subordinate clausesEr sagte dass er nach hause kommt (he said that he to home comes)
Rate of acquisition Some learners are faster than others Example 1: Snow and Hoefnagel-Hole (1978) Example 2: Dulay and Burt (1974)
Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle (1978) L1 English / L2 Dutch Immersion Tasks: Pronunciation, auditory discrimination, morphology, sentence repetition, sentence translation, sentence judgement, story comprehension, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Findings: • After 3 months’ residence: adults and adolescents outperformed children on tests • After 10 months’ residence: the children caught up
Dulay and Burt (1974) L1 Chinese (Cantonese) / L2 English (replication of D&B, 73, L1 Spanish / L2 English children) 115 6-8 year-olds in the US Task: BSM
Variable attainment profile • Fossilization • High levels of individual variation Example 1: Franceschina (2001) Example 2: Johnson and Newport (1989)
Franceschina (2001) L1 English, L1 Italian / L2 Spanish Nearnatives Task: Spontaneous speech production Findings: • All learners were equally accurate (totally target-like) on number agreement • The Italian speakers were more accurate than the English speakers on gender agreement
Johnson and Newport (1989) L1 Chinese, L1 Korean / L2 English 46 participants AoA: between 3-39 Minimum residence in the US: 5 years Task: GJT testing a range of grammatical properties
Summary ILGs are: • Systematic (e.g., route, within L1 groups) • Variable (according to age of acquisition, L1, in terms of rate of acquisition and outcome)
What determines the variable L2 outcomes? • Learner-internal factors • Age (Singleton and Lengyel, 1995; Birdsong, 1999) • L1 (Odlin, 1989; Gass and Selinker, 1992) • Aptitude (Sawyer and Ranta, 2001) • Motivation (Dornyei and Schmidt, 2001) • …
What determines the variable L2 outcomes? • Learner-external factors • Type of input (Carroll, 2001; Norris and Ortega, 2000) • Type of interaction (Gass, 1997) • …
What determines the variable L2 outcomes? Caveat: SLA researchers do not all agree on the exact role that the previously mentioned factors play in determining L2 outcomes.
References Birdsong, D. (ed.) 1999: Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Carroll, S. E. 2001: Input and evidence. The raw material of SLA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Dornyei, Z. and R. Schmidt. 2001: Motivation and second language acquisition. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1974: Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24, 37-53. Franceschina, F. 2001: Where lies the difference between native and non-native grammars? Evidence from the L2A of Spanish, in S. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcew, eds. EUROSLA Yearbook 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 143-158. Gass, S. M. 1997: Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Gass, S. M. and L. Selinker. (eds.) 1992: Language transfer in language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
References Myles, F., R. Mitchell and P. J. Hooper. 1999: Interrogative chunks in French L2: a basis for creative construction? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, 49-80. Norris, J. and L. Ortega. 2000: Effectiveness of L2 instruction: a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning 50, 417-528. Odlin, T. 1989: Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pienemann, M. 1998a: Language processing and L2 development. Processability theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ---- 1998b: Developmental dynamics in L1 and L2 acquisition: Processability Theory and generative entrenchment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 1-20. Sawyer, M. and L. Ranta. 2001: Aptitude, individual differences and instructional design, in P. Robinson, ed. Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 319-353. Singleton, D. M. and Z. Lengyel. (eds.) 1995: The age factor in second language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Snow, C. E. and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. 1978: The critical period for language acquisition: evidence from second language learning. Child Development 49, 1114-1128.
Administrative • Reading: White (2003: chapter 1). You will find some study questions on the course website. You can also read chapter 2, which contains more advanced discussion. • Empirical study summary forms • Glossary cards • This term seminars will take place in weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 in Bowland B61