LING212 Second Language Acquisition. Florencia Franceschina. Terminology. Second language acquisition Foreign language acquisition Acquisition of additional languages Bilingual language acquisition. L2 grammars. A.k.a. interlanguage grammars (ILGs) Example : L2 speaker on Botticelli.
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A.k.a. interlanguage grammars (ILGs)
Example: L2 speaker on Botticelli
Example: Myles et al. (1999)
L1 English/L2 French
Recorded 6 times over 2 years
Initially drilled in using ‘chunks’:
Quel âge as-tu?
Comment tu t’appelles?
Qu’est qu’il aime faire?
Three question types:
1. Qs formed from chunks they had been drilled on.
2. Novel questions lacking verbs
Où la piscine?
3. Novel questions with verbs
16%Myles et al. (1999)
Fixed stages of acquisition
Example: Pienemann (1998)
Stages of acquisition of word order in L2 German:
Some learners are faster than others
Example 1: Snow and Hoefnagel-Hole (1978)
Example 2: Dulay and Burt (1974)
L1 English / L2 Dutch
Tasks: Pronunciation, auditory discrimination, morphology, sentence repetition, sentence translation, sentence judgement, story comprehension, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
L1 Chinese (Cantonese) / L2 English (replication of D&B, 73, L1 Spanish / L2 English children)
115 6-8 year-olds in the US
Example 1: Franceschina (2001)
Example 2: Johnson and Newport (1989)
L1 English, L1 Italian / L2 Spanish
Task: Spontaneous speech production
L1 Chinese, L1 Korean / L2 English
AoA: between 3-39
Minimum residence in the US: 5 years
Task: GJT testing a range of grammatical properties
Caveat: SLA researchers do not all agree on the exact role that the previously mentioned factors play in determining L2 outcomes.
Birdsong, D. (ed.) 1999: Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Carroll, S. E. 2001: Input and evidence. The raw material of SLA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dornyei, Z. and R. Schmidt. 2001: Motivation and second language acquisition. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1974: Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24, 37-53.
Franceschina, F. 2001: Where lies the difference between native and non-native grammars? Evidence from the L2A of Spanish, in S. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcew, eds. EUROSLA Yearbook 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 143-158.
Gass, S. M. 1997: Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gass, S. M. and L. Selinker. (eds.) 1992: Language transfer in language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Myles, F., R. Mitchell and P. J. Hooper. 1999: Interrogative chunks in French L2: a basis for creative construction? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, 49-80.
Norris, J. and L. Ortega. 2000: Effectiveness of L2 instruction: a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning 50, 417-528.
Odlin, T. 1989: Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pienemann, M. 1998a: Language processing and L2 development. Processability theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
---- 1998b: Developmental dynamics in L1 and L2 acquisition: Processability Theory and generative entrenchment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 1-20.
Sawyer, M. and L. Ranta. 2001: Aptitude, individual differences and instructional design, in P. Robinson, ed. Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 319-353.
Singleton, D. M. and Z. Lengyel. (eds.) 1995: The age factor in second language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Snow, C. E. and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. 1978: The critical period for language acquisition: evidence from second language learning. Child Development 49, 1114-1128.