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11 th RAL Masterclass Introduction

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  1. 11th RAL MasterclassIntroduction Glenn Patrick Rutherford Appleton Laboratory http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/pust/masterclass.htm 12 – 14 March 2008

  2. Shorter wavelengths means higher energies. Probing Matter

  3. Higher Energies Reveal Deeper Structure

  4. Particle Physics Astronomy E = mc2 E  kT

  5. Cosmic Particles Interactions in the atmosphere Low flux of particles Difficult to identify/control Accelerators!


  6. e+ e- Charged Particle Beams Force on charged particle is given by the Lorentz Force Electric Field Acceleration Magnetic Field Bending Anode(+) Cathode(-) p+ e-

  7. 1897 – J.J. Thomson John Cockroft & Ernest Walton Voltage Multiplier – Cavendish Laboratory, 1932.

  8. Cockroft/Walton Pre-Injectors 750kV FermiLab 665 kV ISIS, RAL (replaced 2004)

  9. + + - - - Fermilab (400 MeV) LINEAR ACCELERATORS + + Alternating RF voltage. Each step gives a small energy increase to the particle.

  10. 2 mile Linear Accelerator, SLAC, Stanford World’s straightest building World’s longest building

  11. 13 cm Circular Accelerators Cyclotron First circular particle accelerator built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in 1930. Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm

  12. PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF A SYNCHROTRON In a Collider, bunches of particles/antiparticles circulate in opposite directions.

  13. Super Proton Synchrotron CERN, Geneva (6km circumference)

  14. Radio Frequency Cavities LEP (CERN) Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) 1989-2000 27km circumference 3,000 bending magnets 800 focussing magnets 11,000 revolutions/sec

  15. Electromagnetic waves accelerate particles in the same way that waves propel surfers. Timing is vital!

  16. Focussing Magnets Quadrupole (LEP) Strong Focussing Beam alternately focussed in horiz and vert planes. Sextupole (LEP) Correction of chromatic spread.

  17. Tevatron, FermiLab, Chicago Tevatron Main injector Collides protons and anti-protons Energy = 1 TeV (1000 GeV) 4 mile circumference

  18. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) This afternoon velocity(proton)= 0.999999991c 7 TeV protons colliding with 7 TeV protons. 27km circumference. Starts operation later in 2008. 8,000 cryomagnets. 40,000 tons of metal cooled to -271°C. 2835x2835 bunches, 1011 protons/bunch, Crossing rate 40MHz.

  19. e  You are here Synchrotron Radiation Diamond Light Source Started operation: Feb 2007. Uses synchrotron radiation for studies at molecular/atomic level.

  20. ~31 km The Next Generation? 250 GeV electrons colliding with 250 GeV positrons 8 February 2007 Reference Design Report 2010 Engineering Design 2019 – 2025? Operation?? International Linear Collider

  21. Masterclass Programme 09:30 Arrival, Coffee and Doughnuts (R22) 10:00 Welcome Elizabeth Clarke 10:05 Introduction Dr. Glenn Patrick 10:20 Fundamentals of Particle Physics Dr. Stefania Ricciardi 11:00 Introducing ISIS and DiamondDr. Martyn Bull 11:35 Group A: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group B: Computer Study Drs. Tricoli & Wielers 12:30 Buffet Lunch (R18) 13:30 The Large Hadron ColliderDr. Monica Wielers 14:15 Group B: Visit to ISIS or Diamond Group A: Computer Study Drs. Tricoli & Wielers 15:15 Tea Opportunity for video link with CERN 15:30 Applications of Particle Accelerators Dr. Rob Edgecock 16:00 Question and Answer Session 16:15 End Material can be found at: http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/pust/masterclass.htm