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Putting Practice to Words. Concept Mapping, Care Planning, & APA Formatting Ryan Rickley, SN Mentor Student Nurse National University. Objectives. Identify the proper use of concept mapping, as a means to deconstruct complicated ideas

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putting practice to words

Putting Practice to Words

Concept Mapping, Care Planning,

& APA Formatting

Ryan Rickley, SN

Mentor Student Nurse

National University

  • Identify the proper use of concept mapping, as a means to deconstruct complicated ideas
  • Explain proper care planning technique – from conceptualization to evaluation
  • Discuss APA formatting and resources for help
practice into words

Practice into Words

Concept Mapping

Breaking down & relating complex ideas.

concept map
Concept Map
  • Takes complicated ideas and breaks them down
  • Allows you to see relationships between seemingly separate ideas
  • Helps to develop clinical judgment skills
  • Allows for prioritization, and elimination of data
  • When lost, start by mapping out your ideas, thoughts, experiences – it can guide you to the priorities
practice activity
Practice Activity

is an 88-year-old woman who presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Her vital signs on admission are temperature 99.6°F (37.6°C), blood pressure 145/90, pulse 125, and respiratory rate 24. Her laboratory tests reveal white blood cell count (WBC) 13,000/mm3, potassium (K+) 3.2 mEq/L, lipase 449 units/L, amylase 306 units/L, total bilirubin 3.4 mg/dL, direct bilirubin 2.2 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 142 U/L, and alanine aminotrans- ferase (ALT) 390 U/L. Physical examination reveals a distended abdomen that is very tender on palpation. Bowel sounds are present in all four quadrants, but hypoactive. Mrs. Miller is admitted with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. She will be kept nothing by mouth (NPO). Intravenous (IV) fluid of D51/2 NS with 40 mEq of potassium chloride (KCl) per liter at 100 mL per hour is prescribed. The health care provider prescribes continued administration of her preadmission medica- tions, that is, pantoprazole sodium and levothyroxine sodium (in IV form because the client is NPO) and spironolactone (available in oral form), and adds the pre- scription of IV metoclopramide and morphine sulfate. A nasogastric (NG) tube is inserted and attached to low wall suction.

Mrs. Miller’s NG tube is draining yellow-brown drainage. Her pain is being man- aged effectively with IV morphine 4 mg every four hours. Mrs. Miller is anxious and has many questions for the nurse: “What is the test I am having done today? What is pancreatitis? Will I need to have surgery? Why did they put this tube in my nose? When will I be able to eat real food?” 

practice into words1

Practice into Words

Care Planning

Guiding your practice with evidence.

care plans
Care Plans
  • Are prioritized based on the client condition
  • Incorporate data gathered from assessment, patient chart, labs, etc.
  • Are SMART at every step
  • Formatted using APA
  • Speak to your practice – not a textbook’s
  • Convey what you did, will do, or should do for the patient to guide them towards wellness

Which data is important? (select all that apply)

  • Medical Diagnosis from Chart
  • Physical Findings from Assessment
  • Psychosocial Findings from Assessment
  • Suspected Problems/Issues from Assessment
  • It’s a trick question: WE Look at EVERYTHING!!!
  • Ensure that your ASSESSMENT data is in your:
    • Diagnosis
    • Goals
    • Evaluations
  • Assessment data really doesn’t belong in Interventions
  • Prioritize
    • WHICH problem is of greatest concern?
    • WHICH problem did you do the most work around?
    • WHICH problem requires the most re-assessment?
    • WHICH priority framework SUPPORTS your choice?
  • WHEN in doubt..
    • ABC’s or Maslow’s will guide your decision making
prioritizing abc s
Prioritizing: ABC’s
  • Airway
    • Ineffective Airway Clearance
  • Breathing
    • Ineffective Breathing Pattern
    • Impaired Gas exchange
    • Inability to sustain spontaneous ventilation
  • Circulation
    • Altered Tissue Perfusion
    • Decreased Cardiac Output
    • Fluid Volume Excess
prioritizing mhon
Prioritizing: MHON
  • Physiological Needs: Food, Water, Warm, Rest
      • Fluid Volume Deficit
      • Imbalanced Nutrition
      • Ineffective Thermoregulation
      • Ineffective Sleeping Pattern
  • Physiological Needs: Safety
    • Impaired Skin Integrity
  • RISK Diagnosis START here!
      • Risk for: Injury, Falls, Infection, Body Temp, Aspiration
let s talk about risk
Let’s Talk about RISK
  • IF it’s a risk Dx, then:
    • You CANNOT have EVIDENCE (NO AEB!!)
    • It CANNOT be the priority
      • UNLESS….
    • Use THOUGHTFULLY! Probably not the most important.
when use risk
When use risk?

Maybe use as a 3rd or 4th Dx… or in well-patients (I.E. OB):

  • Risk for Falls
  • Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
  • Risk for Aspiration

“Lame” Risk Dx:

  • Risk for Injury
  • Risk for Infection
  • Risk for Pain

Can anyone tell me WHY these are “Lame”?

Answer: Everyone is at risk for these things in the hospital.

let s write a dx
Let’s write a Dx
  • Priority NANDA Diagnosis
  • R/T: disease processes, &/or suspected processes, &/or “the problem”
  • AEB
    • Think of this as “making your case” that you are correct in your diagnosis. Your diagnosis needs clinical support
example dx
Example Dx


Ineffective gas exchange R/T pulmonary edema secondary to fluid volume overload d/t CHF AEB crackles bilaterally upon auscultation, ABG abnormalities (7.32, 50, 22), SPO2 91% on 6L per NC, BLE pulses +4, patient complaints of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, and “feeling like their drowning”


Ineffective gas exchange R/T problems breathing AEB low o2 levels, CHF, and crackles in their lungs

how do you get the r t
How do you get the R/T?


WHAT can cause this problem to occur? Use a concept map to look for the root-cause of the problem.

If they can’t breath – WHY?

If their o2 SATS are low – WHY?

If their pulses are bounding – WHY?

This will get you to your R/T – the medical diagnosis should confirm your results, not be your result

how do you get the aeb
How do you get the AEB?


  • Physical Assessment
  • Psychosocial Assessment
  • Patient Complaints
  • Medical Records / LAB data
  • GET IT ALL!! The more assessment data, the stronger your case.
practice activity1
Practice Activity

Pair in groups of 2-3

1 minute

Formulate your PRIORITY Dx

    • Specific: What is success?
    • Measureable: How will you evaluate?
    • Achievable/Realistic: Can you do it?
    • Timely: WHEN will your goal be evaluated?
  • Short-Term
    • END of shift (as defined by..)
    • Very tangible
  • Long-Term
    • End of week, by discharge, etc.
    • (definite point in time still)
  • Specific
    • Patient will experience no seizure activity
  • Measureable
    • AEB absence of tonic-clonic events
  • AR
    • Yes, because nursing can control seizures with interventions (we don’t write this part…)
  • Timely
    • Through end of shift (1900).
put it together
Put it together
  • Patient will be free of seizure activity AEB absence of tonic-clonic events through end of shift (1900).


  • Patient will not experience any seizures during my shift.
practice activity2
Practice Activity

Pair in groups of 2-3

1 minute

Formulate your PRIORITY GOAL for Dx

    • They should be SPECIFIC
    • They should be TIMELY
    • They should be MEASUREABLE
  • Seeing a pattern? 
  • Always include a rationale with your intervention.
strong vs weak
Strong vs. Weak
  • Weak
    • Copying from the book
    • Saying things you would never do
    • Pulling stuff out of your, you know what
  • Strong
    • Real interventions that will impact the goal, and guide the client towards wellness
    • Something that you really did, or would do.
    • Something that would make the biggest improvement in the patient condition
    • You prioritize these as well, based on MOST helpful, to least helpful and/or least critical
  • Infuse Magnesium Sulfate @ 125mL/hr per MD orders. Mg will prevent seizure activity by increasing the threshold of CNS activity.
  • Monitor VS/Neuro Vitals Q1H. S/Sxof impending seizures including ALOC, visual disturbances, and headaches, which would warrant further internvetion.
  • Monitor client for mag toxicity. S/SX including RR depression AEB <10 RR/min, Dysreflexia AEB Reflexes > or < +2, all indicate a critical change in condition.
  • Implement and maintain seizure precautions including padded bed rails, bed down, call light in reach, all ambulation with nursing assist, and bed alarm. Safety is the priority and responsibility of the nurse.
practice activity3
Practice Activity

Pair in groups of 2-3

1 minute

Formulate your PRIORITY

Interventions for Dx

  • Guess what?
    • They should be SPECIFIC
    • They should be TIMELY
    • They should be MEASUREABLE
  • This is your chance to reflect on your practice, and recommend how to move forward with the care of this patient.
  • They should evaluate your interventions – did it work? Did your patients condition:
    • Improve
    • Worsen
    • Stay the Same
evaluations outcomes
  • The short-term goal was not achieved as per evaluation at 1730. Although the interventions were implemented, the patient still displays the same s/sxof ineffective tissue profusion and requires reevaluation and new interventions that attempt to better address the patient’s needs.
  • The long-term goal cannot be evaluated at this time, however the nursing team should evaluate the effectiveness of their interventions based upon the results of ongoing assessment of the patient. The nurse should continue to advocate for the patient and work with the interdisciplinary team to identify treatment interventions that address the underlying medical conditions.
practice activity4
Practice Activity

Pair in groups of 2-3

1 minute

Formulate your Evaluation Statements

apa sources

APA & Sources

American Psychological Association


  • Are not scary!
    • You need them to legitimize your work.
    • They are your evidence to base your practice
  • Only peer reviewed-journals
  • Nursing sources are always preferred
  • Recent is always better (Past 5 years)
  • Use the library – it has great resources and saves you a lot of time
  • Check the automatic citations for errors
general considerations
General Considerations

Running Head + Page Number in Header

Title Page


In-text citations

2 spaces after each sentence

NO spaces between paragraphs

Double spaced – 12 point fonts

1 Inch Margins ALL sides

References Page

running head 1 st page
Running Head – 1st Page
  • NO MORE THAN 50 characters TOTAL
  • Running Head = normal capitalization
  • “Running Head” is ONLY on title page
title page
Title Page





second page first page of paper
Second Page(first page of paper)

Running Head (All CAPS – doesn’t say running head)

Restate the title (center, NOT bold)

Start the paper with your introduction

All paragraphs have a .5 inch indent, but no spacing between paragraph

ALWAYS USE HEADINGS to guide the reader

  • NOTE: THERE IS NOT an “Introduction” Header!!
in text citations
In-Text Citations
  • 1 Author: (Author, Year)
  • 1 Author + Page (Author, Year, p. #)
  • Up to 3 Authors: (Author, Author, & Author, Year)
  • More than 3 Authors: (Author et al., Year)
  • Rickley (2013) states that effective in-text citations are utilized this way.
in text citations1
In-Text Citations
  • 1 Author: (Author, Year)
  • 1 Author + Page (Author, Year, p. #)
  • Up to 3 Authors: (Author, Author, & Author, Year)
  • More than 3 Authors: (Author et al., Year)
  • Rickley (2013) states that effective in-text citations are utilized this way.
reference list
Reference List
  • Listed alphabetical by author/organizations
  • Title center, not bolded
  • Hanging indent on second line
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
    • Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
  • Maintain capitalization of journal title, or book title
apa formatting resources
APA FormattingResources
  • APA Purdue OWL
    • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • NU Library
    • http://nu.libguides.com/nursing
  • APA Style
    • http://www.apastyle.org


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