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South Asian Urban and City Management Course. The Urban Environmental Challenge ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE IN URBAN LAND-USE PLANNING: ADVICE FOR PLANNERS AND DECISION MAKERS Do you know your ground? John Powell, British Geological Survey. The Relevance of Geology to Environmental Management.

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South asian urban and city management course l.jpg

South Asian Urban and City Management Course

The Urban Environmental Challenge

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE IN URBAN LAND-USE PLANNING: ADVICE FOR PLANNERS AND DECISION MAKERS

Do you know your ground?

John Powell, British Geological Survey


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The Relevance of Geology to Environmental Management

  • The environment is not limited to on and above the earth’s surface….

  • Geology is not just:

    • Scientists with hammers and instruments

    • Producing pretty, but

    • incomprehensible, maps

  • Too many decision-makers are unaware of

  • critical contribution geology can make


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What is Environmental Geoscience

  • Defined as : the interaction between people and their physical environment

  • geology and geochemistry (rocks and soils)

  • hydrogeology (groundwater)

  • engineering geology/geotechnical engineering

  • geomorphology (slope analysis/landslip)

  • geophysics (seismic risk)


Man and his environment nothing new l.jpg
Man and his environment: nothing new!

If a builder builds a house and does not make its construction firm - and the house collapses

and causes the death of the owner - the builder shall be put to death……..if it destroys

property, he shall restore whatever it destroyed, and because he did not make the house which

he built firm and it collapsed, he shall rebuild the house which collapsed at his own expense.

Hammurabi, of Babylon (2067-2025 BC)

Be mindful, when visiting a new city, of the air, the soils and the water

Hippocrates, 500 BC

….and lo there was a great earthquake….and every mountain and island were moved out of

their place (refers to Jordan Rift Valley)

Revelation VI: 12,14

Nature to be commanded must be obeyed

Sir Francis Bacon

No engineering structure is better is better than the material of which, and on which, it is built

A B Brink, 1979


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Why is it important to land-use planning?

  • to guide planners, developers to recognise constraints on development - and opportunities for sustainable development

  • factors include: hazards, resources and conservation


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Major Geo-hazards

  • slope instability (landslides, mudflows)

  • natural subsidence (caves, dissolution)

  • heave and settlement (shrink-swell clays)

  • seismic risk (earthquakes)

  • flood risk (river and coastal)

  • volcanic activity (ash-fall, mudflows, lava)

  • rising/falling groundwater

  • toxic and explosive gases (radon; methane)

  • contaminated /polluted land


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Man-induced Hazards

  • Mine spoil

  • Mining-induced subsidence

  • Slope instability in quarries etc.

  • Landfill (gas and leachate)

  • Groundwater pollution

  • Industrial/mining pollution (soils & water)


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Natural Resources

  • Minerals - aggregates; building stone

  • Water - surface water and groundwater

  • Land and soil - agriculture & construction

  • Conservation - natural and geological sites


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Shaft

Coal extraction following removal of contaminated domestic landfill

Landfill-domestic waste

Landfill-domestic waste

Glacial Till

Fireclay Coal


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The Relevance of Geology to Environmental Management

Ignoring geological factors leads to:

  • Increased financial costs

    • eg poor use of natural resources (sterilisation) and damage to property


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The Relevance of Geology to Environmental Management

Ignoring geological factors leads to:

  • Loss of life

    • eg landslides, earthquakes and volcanic activity


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Volcanic hazard prediction

Mud flow (lahar) probability (Chile)

View


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The Relevance of Geology to Environmental Management

Ignoring geological factors leads to:

  • Reduction in quality of life

    • eg pollution of water supply and soils, and gas emission


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Urban Groundwater

Waste Water

Water Supply

Re-use

Disposal

Surface water

Use

Rainfall

Sewage

+- Treatment

Landfill

Peri-urban wells

Urban wells

Waste &Industrial Effluent Disposal

Irrigation

Groundwater Abstraction

Aquifer

Interaction of groundwater supply and wastewater disposal in a city

after Foster et al, 1998


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Potential Problems

Decline in well yields due to falling water table

Declining water quality

Increasing salinity due to sea-water intrusion

Contaminants mobilized from contaminated land by rising water table

Possible Solutions

Reduce abstraction & mains leakage/increase recharge

Reduce contaminants/ restrict residential development of vulnerable areas

Control of industrial effluents

Zone land for different use

Control landfill location and design

Separate waste disposal from groundwater supply

Increase abstraction of shallow polluted wells for non-potable uses

Urban Groundwater Supply Management


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Deep Groundwater Quality Degradation Due to PumpingHAT YAI, THAILAND

HAT YAI CITY

Wastewater leakage

from canals

Piezometric surface of

semi-confined aquifer

Strongly reducing conditions

high Fe and Mn concentrations

WATERTABLE

Front of

leakage

produced

by pumping

AQUITARD

POLLUTED WATER

LEAKAGE

Pumped Region

of Aquifer (mixed

polluted & fresh

water

AQUIFER

AQUIFER

after Foster et al, 1998


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Water Management Solutions

  • Encourage use of groundwater within city limits for non-potable use

  • Line canals and/or install mains sewerage system/treatment plants

  • Incentives for more efficient water use & reduce leakage

  • Develop peri-urban wells to meet increased potable supply


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Landfill site criteria

  • Sound site selection is a key factor

  • Criteria must include geology, groundwater flow

  • Groundwater and surface water protection must be considered

  • Dispersal or treatment of noxious gases and leachate?

  • Leachate control - natural retention or limited release


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COASTPLAN: Environmental geology review and planning

Tourism

Residential

and high rise


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Jakarta: key coastal environmental issues:

Coastal pollution

and fish stocks

Subsidence

Poor foundation conditions/

illegal building practice


Coastal pollution jakarta l.jpg

05.700

05.800

05.900

06.000

Kilometers

06.100

0 2 4 6 8 10

106.500

106.600

106.700

106.800

106.900

107.000

COASTAL POLLUTION: JAKARTA

Kotok Br

Copper

Java Sea

ppm

%

49.4

71.4

99

95

P Pari

41.6

90

24.0

75

50

15.6

Rambut

25

9.1

P Ayer Besar

6.2

15

5.8

10

P Bidadari

Jakarta

5.2

5

Copper in sediment core



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High resolution decision-support systems for geoscience knowledge

Coastal erosion simulation

  • Photogrammetric software and GIS

  • Calculates cliff erosion and sediment volumes

  • Delivers terrain model simulations


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PROBLEM: knowledge

Unrestricted abstraction leads to:

Groundwater salinisation (saline intrusion)

Land subsidence

POSSIBLEOLUTIONS:

Control industrial & domestic demands

Disincentives for industrial users to abstract quality g.w.

Reduce pollution of aquifer from city

Water Quality and Subsidence Issues in Coastal Cities


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SOLUTIONS: knowledgeADVANTAGES OF GIS

  • SEPARATE MAP LAYERS

  • LINKS MAPS AND DATABASES

  • QUERY DATA AND MAPS

  • THEMATIC MAPS

  • COLOUR PAPER COPIES

  • SIMPLE GIS PACKAGE (eg. Map Info)

  • LANDSAT IMAGES/PHOTOGRAPHS



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Land Use In Wolverhampton City knowledge

Key

Industrial

Residential

Allotments

Cemeteries

Green Belt

Other Open Space

Public Open Space

Sports Grounds

Railway

Unclassified


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Lead in surface soils (-2mm) Wolverhampton knowledge

ppm

percentile

1342 99

637 95

475 90

297 75

181 50

117 25

98 15

87 10

75 5



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GIS LAYERS knowledge

  • TOPOGRPHICAL LAYER (1:50K)

  • PLANNING MAPS

  • LANDSAT IMAGES

  • GEOLOGY LAYERS

    BEDROCK

    SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS

    FAULTS/STRUCTURAL

    GEOHAZARDS


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Screen-based Query: Planning Zones and Minerals Resources knowledge

LowCost

Housing

ISRAEL

Aqaba City

IndustrialZone

Tourist

Facilities

Port Facilities



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Query using satellite imagery DEVELOPMENT

Imran Monzogranite

Gulf of Aqaba

  • Imran Monzogranite:

  • Industrial feldspar prospect

  • Exploited for marble

  • Non-aquifer




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Query - Landslip DEVELOPMENTUsing Satellite Image and Map with explanatory photograph

LANDSLIP

ZONE


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Reporting GIS data to end-users DEVELOPMENT

Superficial deposits at site

Taplow gravels

Artificial deposits at site

made ground < 5m

Boreholes at site

None

Solid geology

London Clay

Boreholes within search radius

Reference TQ48SW19

Length - 3.65m

Name - Metropolitan Borough works no 48

E - 542560

N - 0182280


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IT REQUIREMENTS: URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL GIS DEVELOPMENT

Computer hardware

  • PC; Pentium II/III processor with + 64 Mb RAM; 4 Mb video card; and 17inch colour monitor.

  • Hewlett Packard Ink-jet 450C AO Colour ink-jet plotter.

  • Epsom GT 12000A3 colour scanner.

  • Digitiser (or use bureau facilities)

    Computer software

  • GIS software eg: MapInfo Professional/ ARCVIEW

  • Microsoft Office Pro 98 English & Small business edition, plus

  • Computer Database eg: ACCESS or ORACLE

  • Landsat TM digital data on CD


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Essentials of Good Practice for Planning Authorities DEVELOPMENT

  • commitment and awareness - earth science data

  • increase availability and accessibility

  • efficient storage, handling & retrieval of earth science data

  • develop a procedural framework

  • make use of expert advice

  • allocate resources (data collection/archives)


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Problem solving for planners and developers DEVELOPMENTStep 1:Identify constraints and opportunities in area

  • discuss with local & regional experts (eg. Geol. Survey)

  • obtain all relevant earth science data

  • assess adequacy & completeness of information

  • specify and obtain new information (where necessary)

  • identify & define extent of hazards, resources & conservation opportunities

  • assess significance of these factors on land-use planning

  • seek additional expert advice where necessary (geotechnical/groundwater/environmental/mining consultants)


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Problem solving for planners and developers DEVELOPMENTStep 2:Storage and handling of earth science data

  • Archival records (maps, records, SI)

  • Computerised Databases (spreadsheets and relational databases)

  • Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

  • Output in the form of easy to use maps and guides designed for the non-specialist


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Problem solving for planners and developers DEVELOPMENTStep 3:Regional and National Planning Guidance

  • aimed at regulating the development and use of land in the public interest to provide:

  • guidance: to public and private sector

  • incentive: to local authorities to make best use of land

  • control: prevent development against the public interest & allow consideration of all stakeholders


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Insurance: a way of mitigating post-catastrophe loss in the developing world?

  • Efficient means of getting funds ‘on the ground’ quickly after a natural catastrophe

  • Funds come directly from international financial institutions

  • Concept supported by the Development Banks; aid funds contribute to premiums

  • Risk must be interpreted, processed and presented in a form useable by the financial industry


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High resolution decision-support systems for geoscience knowledge

Assessing geological risk for the Insurance industry

  • Helps companies understand their exposure to potential hazards

  • A postcode based system

  • provides a quantitative assessment

  • reduces geology to a number !


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CONCLUSIONS knowledge

  • The Way Forward: Political Realism and Practical Steps

  • Politically difficult: ‘Out of public sight - out of political mind’

  • Regulatory intervention: Long term benefits vs. Immediate public impact

  • BUT: To postpone protection/regulation policies leads to more costly and intractable problems in the long run

  • Requires consensus - through public debate with stakeholders


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