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High Risk Young Population. Advance Research Team Kem Ley Nhim Dalen Boray Boralin Umakant Singh. Definition and Type. Type of High Risk Young Population Workers Migrant Workers Factory Workers Construction Workers Restaurant workers Domestic Workers Entertainment Workers

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High Risk Young Population

Advance Research Team

Kem Ley

Nhim Dalen

Boray Boralin

Umakant Singh

definition and type
Definition and Type

Type of High Risk Young Population

  • Workers
    • Migrant Workers
    • Factory Workers
    • Construction Workers
    • Restaurant workers
    • Domestic Workers
  • Entertainment Workers
    • Sex Workers , Beer Promoters, Karaoke Girls
    • Men Who Have Sex With Men-MSM
    • Drug Users and Injection Drug Users-DU/IDU
  • Youth in hotspots
  • Others young population with unemployment
country context
Country Context

General Population


General young population aged between 10-24 is 35% or 4.7 millions or youngest population in Southeast Asia

General children under 18 is 41% or 5.5 millions but OVC is 14% or 750,000

youth in hotspots
Youth in Hotspots
  • 71% of female and 90% of male respondents report drinking alcohol
  • 3.5% of female and 15.2% of male respondents reported ever using illicit drug (Yama, Yaba, Metham, Amphetha..)
  • Over 41% of male and 23% of female study participants reported being sexually active. Or 83% of those male paying sex with women in the past year.)
  • Sweethearts relationship (56% F, 66% M). Moreover, condom use was alarmingly low (31% F, 58% M)
  • STI Symptoms (43% F, 30% M) did not seek STI treatment
  • 12% of F participants who have had sex reported that they become pregnant, among which 33% experienced induced abortion.
entertainment workers
Entertainment Workers
  • Criminalization of vulnerable population
    • Contradicting of Anti-human Trafficking and sexual exploitation Law, Drug Control Law, Community Safety Policy
    • Public health consequence and human rights violation
    • High discrimination and stigmatization against entertainment workers
  • All most all interventions are failed to reach entertainment workers
  • There is no DATA BASE SYSTEM to monitor the status of entertainment workers and levels of enforcement of legal frameworks application
  • Building enabling environment for NGOs, Associations and Unions for providing and supporting heath , social and legal services to entertainment workers
entertainment workers few
Entertainment Workers-FEW
  • NCHADS 2009, MoH, 34,193 women working as EW (45.1% were aged between 20-24), 10% younger (15-19).
  • Law on Antihuman trafficking and sexual exploitation enacted in Feb 2008 leading the failed application of social issues pogram and CU100% or CU 100% Policy/Prakas 066 or brothel closure.
  • BBEW decreased from 6,000 to 1,775 in 2009 VS NBB-EW increased from 26,000 to 32418
  • BSS, NCHADS, MoH , In both BB and NBB EW consistent condom use with non paying sweethearts was much lower 52% and 54% respectively.
  • 30% abortion in the last one year (PSI TRAC SURVEY)
  • Most of them are drug users
entertainment workers idu dus
Entertainment Workers-IDU/DUs
  • NCHADS, MoH, 13,000, DU, 2, 000, IDU
  • Majority of drug users are young population 80% are under 25 years old of age and 17% under 18 years.
  • Mapping of over 3,000 street children found that 42% used drug, with 14% reporting injection drugs.
  • 35% of IDUs reporting sharing of needles and syringes at last injection.
  • More than half (53.3%) of IDU reported having sex after using drugs in the past year.
  • Criminalization of drug users (Drug Control Law)
  • Lack of support for voluntary treatment and harm reduction
  • Lack of enabling environment for implementers
  • 24.4% of IDU infected with HIV
entertainment workers msm
Entertainment Workers-MSM
  • KHANA and FHI, 2009, 21,327 in selected 10 provinces. But number may underestimated
  • Many MSM have sex with female partners
  • 2/3 (66%) of MSM excluded transgender reported having sex with female partners in the past year.
  • High discrimination against MSM (Stigma Index Study 2011
      • Self-Stigma
      • Family
      • Community
      • Society
  • Majority of MSM have no formal job-unemployment rate is high
entertainment workers6
Entertainment Workers

Sexual behavior w/SH

-17% currently have more than one SH

-Avg. 1.5 SH per year

-Avg. 3.4 sex acts with SH per month

Sexual behavior w/client

-52% SH was formerly a client

-Avg. 2.15 client per week

-Avg. 22 sex acts with client per month

  • 34, 193 EWs ( NCHADS)
  • 14.7%, EW HIV Prevalence
  • 18% of DFSW reported unprotected sex with sweetheart in the past month
  • 31% of DFSW had an abortion in the past 12 months
  • 53% of DFSW reported STI symptoms in the past year
  • % of IDFSW reported unprotected sex with sweetheart in the past 3 months( 24% of BG s, 20% BP and 19% KK)
  • %of IDFSW had an abortion in the past 12 months (17% BG, 30% BP, 25% KK)



Large Number of Concurrent Sweetheart Relationships,

TRaC Survey, PSI 2009

entertainment workers7
Entertainment workers
  • 469 sex workers were detained in Phnom Penh in 2009, up from 415 in 2008. Nut Nang, MoSAVY, said-Phnom Penh Post, Jan 22, 2010. Many factories were closed and factory workers lost their jobs, and most of them did not go back to their hometown but instead turned to EE to earn money for their families.

Source: CACHA, WNU , UNAIDS Action Research 2009

increased sti rate among bb ews nbb ew
Increased STI rate among BB-EWs-NBB-EW

Source: Interpretation of Prakas 66, PSI/UNAIDS, FHI, CBCA AND NAA

Data Management, PAO in BMC, SRP and SHV,

Situation of entertainment workers

Comparison the current situation and the past as well as future expectation

( 10 is the top and 1 is the lowest one)

cambodian workers
Cambodian Workers
  • Poor Data Base System to monitor the enforcement of labor law and other legal frameworks
  • There is no oversight committee and oversight plan
  • There is no minimum wage policy-Very low wage for garment factory workers, domestic workers and hotel and restaurant workers
  • Limited enforcement of Cambodia Labor Law
  • Poor recruitment and training for workers
  • Tremendous Labor Exploitation and violation
  • Human Trafficking and Sexual Abuse are associated
  • Corruption is common in Cambodia
cambodian workers factory workers
Cambodian Workers-Factory Workers

GDP per capita is 830 US$ (Draft of National Budget law 2012)

Minimum Wage should be 70 US$ in minimum with full package of social protection such as annual leave, sick Leave, retired fund, bonus, health insurance, accident insurance, maternity leave, 3 dependents, temporary house etc.

cambodian workers migrant workers
Cambodian Workers-Migrant Workers

There is oversight committee-DPs-CSOs-GOs and VGs

Lack of Legal Frameworks

Lack of Participation from CSO and Migrant Workers

Poor Investigation and Emergency Response System

legal frameworks
Legal Frameworks
  • Ratified CEDAW
  • UN Declaration 1993
  • Law on SHTSE
  • Law on drug Control
  • Law on DV
  • Prakas 66
  • Prakas 86
  • SP on EW, NAA
  • HIV SP, MoI
  • EW Core Group, NAA
    • P-CoPCT-ST
    • P-CoPCT-CC
    • MEKA
    • PF
    • PE
    • EWs
rational for recommendations
Rational for recommendations
  • Self-Employment
    • Social Land Concession
    • Irrigation System building
    • Livelihood Options-CSOs
      • Family based Reference Centre, Community-Based Reference Centre
      • Vocational Training
      • Market Place for farmers
  • Paid Employment
    • Minimum Wage Policy
    • SME support
    • Loan with full package
    • M&E and Oversight Team
    • CSO Programmes
  • Enabling Environment
    • Law Enforcement
    • Decriminalization of VG
    • Corruption Eradication
    • Leadership-Morality
    • Democracy and D&D
  • Increased employment among young population
    • Investment in irrigation
    • Supporting SME
    • Minimum Wage Policy formulation and enforcement
  • M&E Systems, Tools and Data Base System for monitoring the status of workers and enforcement labor law, exploitation, violation and application of minimum wage policy
  • Oversight committee and oversight Plan
  • Decriminalization of vulnerable groups such as Sex Workers, Drug Users, MSM and others
  • Access to MFI with full package such as market and business training, vocational traiining…
  • Building enabling environment for NGOs, Associations, Unions and other community-based groups for health, social and legal issues
  • 2009, KHANA and FHI, MSM size Estimation
  • 2009, PSI TRAC Survey
  • 2010, NCHADS, BSS, HSS
  • 2010, NCHADS, DU/IDU size estimation
  • 2010, PSI Prakas 66 assessment
  • 2010, WNU, Entertainment Workers and Sex Worker Assessment
  • 2009-2010, UNAIDS Cambodia Country Profile
  • 2010, Ministry of Commerce
  • 2010, ILO, Better Factories, Newsletter
  • 2010, Agence France Press
  • 2009, CDRI report
  • 2010, Human Rights Watch Report
  • 2008, RCG, MoP Cambodia Census
  • 2009, RGC, MoP, Cambodia Socio Economic Survey