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Session 6 Integrated Emergency Management
Objectives of the Session Students will be able to 6.1 Define the principle of integration. 6.2 Discuss the evolution of the concept of Integrated Emergency Management in the United States. 6.3 Describe the mechanisms and stakeholders involved in horizontal integration. 6.4 Identify the policy issues associated with vertical integration.
Definition • Emergency managers ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community.
Student Activity • Emergency managers ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community. • Consider this statement. What does each component mean to you?
Definition • “Unity of effort” - common objective that guides independent efforts. • “Levels of government” • Vertical (i.e. local, state, Federal) • Horizontal levels within a jurisdiction (i.e. departments, agencies, legislative, etc.) • “Elements of the community” - general public, private sector entities, and non-governmental organizations.
Student Activity • Why is integration important?
Why is integration important? • More efficient application of resources • Quicker response times • Less confusion • Less duplication of effort • Less chance of gaps in provision of relief • Potential cost savings • Support to recovery
Levels of Integration • Internal integration. • Ensures elements of the EM program form a system • characterized by a structured emergency management program
Levels of Integration • Horizontal integration • brings together the efforts of groups that are bound together by mutual interests. • A local emergency management program may include both public and private agencies as well as the general public.
Levels of Integration • Vertical integration • seeks to ensure compatibility among various entities by encouraging standardization within broad parameters.
Drivers • Directive from higher authority (e.g. NIMS) • Development of standards (e.g. NFPA 1600) • Consensus building through social networks (e.g. collaboration) • Doctrine
Standards • A standard is an acceptable level of quality as defined by a standards development organization. • The US national standards organization is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Standards • Accreditation requires • adherence to an accepted process for developing standards • includes review and comment by subject matter experts • ensures an acceptable level of quality for the standard.
Integration in the US • Civil Defense Act of 1950 • Dual Use Doctrine 1976 • National Governors Association study 1978 • Formation of FEMA 1979
Integrated Emergency Management System • Focus on developing functional capability • Identification of core functions • Identification and analysis of all hazards • Identification of capability shortfalls • Development of multi-year strategy • Equal weight to all four phases of emergency management
Student Activity • How does the Integrated Management System compare with the Target Capabilities List developed by DHS? • Are the two opposed or can they be integrated?
Target Capabilities List • Focus on developing functional capability • Scenario-based rather than all hazards based • Emphasizes response • Could be incorporated under NFPA 1600 5.11 Operational Procedures
IEMS Today • Forms foundation of National Preparedness Standard (NFPA 1600) • Encourages all hazards approach • Links capability development to hazard analysis • Encourages an enterprise approach • Encourages multi-year strategy development
Horizontal Integration • The process of establishing a common purpose for stakeholders with roughly equal standing • Identify a common frame of reference • Political • Geographical
Student Exercise • Select a common frame of reference • Identify potential stakeholders
Horizontal Integration • Integration requires balancing inclusiveness against too many players • Potential limiting criteria may include • Regulatory responsibilities • Possessing significant resources • Ability to successfully oppose initiatives
Student Activity • Develop criteria for determining who is a stakeholder • Apply this criteria to the list stakeholders you previously developed
Horizontal Integration • How will you identify core decision makers? • How will you ingrate peripheral players? • How will you resolve conflict? • Consensus • Majority vote • Vote by identified representatives • Document in an Administrative Plan
Student Activity • Assuming you have resolved issues of governance, what are the key activities your group of stakeholders must undertake to achieve integration?
Integrating Planning • Hazard analysis to determine capability needs • Identify shortfalls between needed and current capabilities • Develop multi-year strategy to eliminate shortfalls • Translate strategy into annual work plans
Vertical Integration • More hierarchical and directive than horizontal integration • Right to direct limited by law and political autonomy • Alternatives to direction • Grant funding • Reimbursement tied to “voluntary” compliance
Student Activity • What methods has the US Government used to encourage integration in Emergency Management?
Integration • Directive –HSGP funds tied to the NIMS implementation • Standards – • NFPA 1600 adopted as the National Preparedness Standard in 2005. • EMAP accreditation expenses eligible expenses under Federal grant programs. • Title IX requires creation of a voluntary preparedness standard for the private sector.
Integration • Doctrine • National Integration Center guides formal development of NIMS doctrine. • Documentation: concept documents, supplementary documents, guides • Implementation guidance and grant information • Funding to the Emergency Management Institute for curriculum development • Training materials
Conclusion • Integration • ensures unity of effort at all levels of government and all elements of the community. • ensures compatibility among disparate plans and activities and • helps make emergency management more effective.
Conclusion • Effective integration addresses three levels: internal, horizontal and vertical. • Methods that can be used to foster integration include directives, the development of a doctrinal base, the use of standards and accepted practices, and establishing social networks.
Conclusion • The core of successful integration is the integrated emergency management system. • IEMS encourages capability development based on • Hazard analysis • An all-hazards approach • An enterprise approach • A multi-year strategy.