BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURES
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BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURES. Figure 10-2 2. Stages in the extraction of energy from foodstuffs. Enzyme is inhibited by malonyl CoA! Why?. heart muscle kidney brain. 1. Synthesis takes place in the cytosol, in contrast with degradation, which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

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Biochemistry lectures

heart

muscle

kidney

brain


Biochemistry lectures

1. Synthesis takes place in the cytosol, in contrast with degradation, which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

2. Intermediates in fattv acid synthesis are covalently linked to the sulf-hydryl groups of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), whereas intermediates in fatty acid breakdown are bonded to coenzyme A.

3. The enzymes of fatty acid synthesis in higher organisms are joined in a single polypeptide chain called fatty acid synthase. In contrast, the degradative enzymes do not seem to be associated.

4. The growing fatty acid chain is elongated by the sequential addition of two-carbon units derived from acetyl CoA. The activated donor of two-carbon units in the elongation step is malonyl-ACP. The elongation reaction is driven by the release of CO2.

5. The reductant in fatty acid synthesis is NADPH, whereas the oxidants in fatty acid degradation are NAD+ and FAD.

6. Elongation by the fatty acid synthase complex stops upon formation of palmitate (C16). Further elongation and the insertion of double bonds are carried out by enzyme systems of the endoplasmic reticulum with the fatty acyl groups as CoA derivatives.


Biochemistry lectures

Schematic diagram showing the proposed movement of the biotin prosthetic group from the site where it acquires a carboxyl group from HCO3- to the site where it donates this group to acetyl CoA.


Biochemistry lectures

Acetyl CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the committed step in fatty acid synthesis, is a key control site.


Biochemistry lectures

Citrate transport system. The system achieves net transport of acetyl CoA from the mitochondrion to the cytosol and net conversion of cytosolic NADH to NADPH. Up to two molecules of ATP are expended for each round of the cyclic pathway.


Biochemistry lectures

. of acetyl CoA from the mitochondrion to the cytosol and net conversion of cytosolic NADH to NADPH. Up to two molecules of ATP are expended for each round of the cyclic pathway.



Biochemistry lectures

To make prostaglandins and leucotrienes, animals use have come from glucose.

C20 fatty acids with 3,4 or 5 cis

s in key positions.

We must get fatty acids with

s in

positions w 6,9 or w 3,6,9 from plants.


Biochemistry lectures

18 have come from glucose.

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

D

CH3

w


Biochemistry lectures

Animals and plants place first have come from glucose.cis

atD9

D

9

C16

D

9

C18


Biochemistry lectures

Animals and plants can place a subsequent have come from glucose.

Only plants can place a subsequent

, separated

, separated

by –CH2– from an existing

, towards the –COO- group,

regardless of the length (C16, C18, C20) of the fatty acid.

6

new

by –CH2– from an existing

, towards the CH3– group.

D

12

9

new

existing

D

9

existing


Biochemistry lectures

D have come from glucose.

C18:1

w

C18:2

w

C18:3

w

C18:0

In plants

9

9

6

9

3

6

9


Biochemistry lectures

C18 have come from glucose.:2

w

C18:3

w

C20:3

w

PGs1

C20:4

w

PGs2

In animals or plants

6

9

6

9

12

6

9

12

6

9

12

15


Biochemistry lectures

C18:3 have come from glucose.w3,6,9

C18:4 w3,6,9,12

C20:5 w3,6,9,12,15

w

3

6

9

12

15

PGs3


Important eicosanoids
Important eicosanoids have come from glucose.

Vascular endothelial cells:

vasdilatory

inhibits platelet aggregation

Platelets:

aggregates platelets

White blood cells,

mast cells

inflammatory,

allergic


Aspirin
Aspirin have come from glucose.

COX


Structure of the active site of prostaglandin h 2 synthase cox
Structure of the active site of prostaglandin H have come from glucose.2 synthase (COX)


Cyclooxygenases
Cyclooxygenases have come from glucose.

COX 1: constitutive

- in plateletts

- in gastrointestinal epithelial cells

COX 2: induced in inflammatory process

Selective inhibitors – non steroidal (NSAIDs) ?

How do steroids reduce inflammation?


Biochemistry lectures

N have come from glucose.-Acetylneuraminate



Biochemistry lectures

Additional liver enzyme have come from glucose.