Updating onboard databases
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Updating Onboard-Databases. (Updates für Onboard-Datenbanken). Author: Christian Grothe . Overview / Agenda. Static Cockpit Data - Trends. More onboard applications use electronically stored (“static”) data Data(bases) integrated in appliances

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Updating onboard databases


(Updates für Onboard-Datenbanken)

Author: Christian Grothe

Static cockpit data trends
Static Cockpit Data - Trends

  • More onboard applications use electronically stored (“static”) data

  • Data(bases) integrated in appliances

  • Trend: integrate all kinds of stored data in one database (server)

  • Timeliness of data critical

  • Problem: keeping data up-to-date

→ Update Solutions Needed!←

Onboard applications examples
Onboard Applications - Examples

  • Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS)

    • enhancing situational awareness by displaying the aircraft in its environment: terrain, obstacles, navaids, …

  • Taxi Positional Awareness

    • bird’s eye view display: moving map of airport with own aircraft for enhanced situational awareness to avoid “runway incursions”

  • Flight Management System

    • allows programming of flight plan to be used by auto pilot, supported by visual representation

    • standard equipment in every aircraft!

  • Chart Generation

    • replace cockpit paper charts (procedures, airport map, …) used by pilots today with dynamically created charts

Aviation data classification
Aviation Data - Classification

  • 4 Classes of electronically stored, static “Aviation Data” used in onboard applications

    • Navigation data

    • Terrain data

    • Obstacle data

    • Airport Mapping data

    • (Cultural data)

  • Semi-static or dynamic Data

    • Weather data

    • Traffic data

    • Performance data

  • Will concentrate on static data

Navigation data
Navigation Data

  • Information about artificial (man-made, real or virtual) objects used for navigation

    • Procedures: approach, arrival, departure, missed-approach

    • Navaids: position, frequencies, types (VOR, NDB, DME, VORTAC, ...

    • Airports/Heliports: frequencies used, runways, ILS, MSA areas

    • Airways, Airspaces: special/ restricted usage, …

  • Storage format: “ARINC424”

    • old (70s), complex (specification: >350 pages)

    • defines concepts, structures and dependencies of navigation data

    • ASCII format

    • optimized for fast retrieval in FMS

Terrain data
Terrain Data

  • Model of earth surface

    • describes “elevation” (deviation from earth ellipsoid)

    • usually: measured at equidistant posts, distance between posts: “post-spacing”

    • typical post-spacing values: 30, 3, 1 arcsec (DTED0,1,2)

    • 2 different models: DSM/DTM (Digital Surface/Terrain Model), with/without vegetation, “canopy”/”bare earth” model

  • Storage format: DEM (Digital Elevation Model)

    • “grid file”: binary/ascii elevation values in columns/rows

    • header information with lat, long, post-spacing, #cols, #rows

Obstacle data
Obstacle Data

  • Information about (“significant”) obstacles for aviation

    • 3 Types: point obstacle (antenna, building, tree, …), line obstacle (power line, cable, fence, …), polygon obstacles (usually not used)

    • line obstacle represented as set of posts (line string)

    • position(s), type, horizontal dimension (diameter)

  • Storage format: tables or gis

    • table format: simple, one row per point obstacle or line obstacle post, often as ascii (csv)

    • gis: as point/line/polygon shapes, attributes added to the shape

Airport mapping data
Airport Mapping Data

  • Map of an airport

    • every (group of) airport element described separately: buildings, runways, taxiways, markings

    • attributes added to every element: surface type, height, name, …

  • Storage format: “AMDB”

    • gis storage format: ESRI shape (shp) files, geometrical shapes (point, line, polygon) with additional attributes (in DBase dbx files)

Acquisition ways for aeronautical data
Acquisition ways for aeronautical data

  • Data Providers

    • like Jeppesen, Lido

    • get data from different sources: publicly available (land surveying office), bought or own surveilling)

    • verify, process, integrate, tailor data for customers (airlines, aircraft manufacturer)

    • responsible for quality!

  • Aeronautical Information Services (AIS)

    • processes defined by ICAO

    • every member state publishes AIP and Amendments, Supplements thereto

    • AIP contains information about national regulations, responsibilities (ATC centers), procedures, airways, etc.

    • changes become “effective” on special dates (28 day cycle)

    • temporary or short term changes published in NOTAM (Notice to Airmen)

Board ground data exchange
Board/Ground Data Exchange

  • Data Medium – manual transport and integration

    • diskette, cd, dvd, memory cards, …

    • loaded into the board systems over “data loader”

    • standard today!

  • “Gatelink”: WLAN at the terminal

    • only some airports have gate link

    • not standardized, isolated application

  • “Connexion by Boeing”: Broadband Internet over satellite

    • proprietary solution, operational since 5/04

    • only few aircraft equipped (some 30), 5 airlines

  • Data Links / ATN

Data links 1
Data Links (1)

  • Only data connection to aircrafts approved and certified by ICAO

  • Data Link Service Provider (DSPs) like SITA and ARINC offer ground routing of data

  • ACARS: first data link

    • starting 70s, meant to be used for AOC messages

    • automatic messages (through triggers) and manually entered messages possible

    • protocol: 2.4 kbit/s, character oriented, medium access: stop-n-wait → only short text messages

    • widely used! channels congested

  • Benefit of data connection to airplanes realized by industry lately (90s)!

Data links 2
Data Links (2)

  • VHF Digital Data Link (VDL)

    • 3 flavors: Mode 2, 3, 4

    • different protocols, 19.2/31.5 kbit/s

    • Mode 2 operational today, transition from ACARS in progress: “ACARS over AVLC (AOA)”

    • Mode 3 and 4 to come (M3 favored by US, M4 favored by Europe)

  • Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar

    • radar beam used to “interrogate” transponder and send data (4 Mbit/s)

    • transponder sends surveillance data and “user data” (1 Mbit/s)

    • main problem: data can be exchanged only when in center of radar spot beam – results in some 100 bit/s

    • not operational for industry use yet, tests for use by ATC in progress

Data links 3
Data Links (3)

  • Satcom

    • Inmarsat (geostationary): 0.6 - 9.6 kbit/s (64kbit/s), does not cover polar regions

    • Iridium (LEO): 2.4 kbit/s, equipment much cheaper

    • data transfer expensive, therefore used only in oceanic regions

  • HF Data Link (HFDL)

    • offered only by ARINC, 2 to 30 MHz, long range

    • low transfer rates: 0.3 – 1.8 kbit/s

    • competition for Satcom, used primarily on polar routes

    • needs special antennas, not widely used

Aeronautical telecommunication network atn
Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN)

  • Main Problem of Data Links: varying equipage

  • Idea: one network, integrating different data link subnetworks interoperably

  • ATN initiative started in early 90s by ICAO, RTCA, ATA, IATA, AEEC

  • Network based on X.25 concepts

  • 4 main elements

    • network mobility: location transparency

    • QoS: specify costs, transfer rate, connection, …

    • data compression: accounting for data links’ low bandwidth

    • standardization of services for ATS applications

  • Problem with implementation: nobody wants to do the first step

Update procedures
Update Procedures

  • Based on operational constraints, safety issues, certification problems and feasibility limitation, different design options are possible

  • Full Update or Incremental Update?

    • Full Update (better: Replacement) very simple, impact on onboard server implementation: read-only – state as of today

    • Incremental Update: Much smaller update packages (for online submission), but have to care for lost updates, integrity checking, …

  • Data Delivery Options

    • initiated by provider, when new data is available: push

    • initiated by operator, when up-to-date data is needed: pull

    • periodical, without trigger