Different Eras of Federalism. Dual Federalism of the Rural Republic (1789-1865). Enumerated powers Sovereign and equal spheres Nullification Eventually settled by the Civil War. Dual Federalism Serving Commerce (1865-1901). Focus on commerce "to perfect the free economy“
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Dual Federalism of the Rural Republic (1789-1865) • Enumerated powers • Sovereign and equal spheres • Nullification • Eventually settled by the Civil War
Dual Federalism Serving Commerce (1865-1901) • Focus on commerce • "to perfect the free economy“ • Growing government at both levels • States as senior partners in police powers and providing services
Cooperative Federalism (1901-1960) • Shared functions • focus on providing services • broadly collaborative patterns • Income Tax; Grants-in-aid • Fed is “servant to the states” • New Deal
Creative Federalism (1960-1968) • Overloaded cooperation • Intergovernmental fiscal transfers • Crosscutting regulation and states as implementers of federal mandates • Increased regulations (strings) • Great Society (LBJ)
New Federalism and the Reaction (1970-) • Revenue sharing • Devolution • Growth of unfunded mandates • Deregulation • Supply-side reductions • Deficit dominates