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Population of Rome. 5 th Century – 120,000 male, adult citizens 4 th Century – 160,000 3 rd Century – 300,000 1 st Century – 900,000 1 st Century AD – 4,000,000-7,000,000. 133-30 BC – Entrenched Problems.

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Population of Rome


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population of rome
Population of Rome
  • 5th Century – 120,000 male, adult citizens
  • 4th Century – 160,000
  • 3rd Century – 300,000
  • 1st Century – 900,000
  • 1st Century AD – 4,000,000-7,000,000
133 30 bc entrenched problems

133-30 BC – Entrenched Problems

Latifundia – large estates (and labor problems, filled by POWs out of Rome’s wars)

Slave Revolts (134-31, 104-100, 73-71)

Grain Dole

Unemployment at Rome

Italian Allies – Franchise issue

Large Standing Army – spread around the Mediterranean

Difficulty of Administrating Empire

e.g. Jugurtha in Numidia/Mithradates in Asia Minor

Maintenance of Mos Maiorum

gracchus gracchus power of the tribune
Gracchus & Gracchus – Power of the Tribune
  • *challenged authority of Senate

*appealed to people for support (Populares)

*tried to give franchise to Italians

*redistribution of land (Agrarian Reform)

  • * redistribution of land

* voting rights for Italians

* control price of grain in Rome

* jury pool from Equites (Knights) class

* soldiers clothing bought with public expense

marius vs sulla
Marius vs Sulla
  • Jugurtha, King of Numidia

Massinissa, J’s grandfather

Micipsa, J’s uncle

134 BC Assisted Scipio Aemilianus

112 J & 2 cousins inherit kingship

War with Rome

  • Marius (quaestor, Sulla) comes to fore
slide6
Marius in North Africa and Gaul

New Army

Successive consulships

Political efforts

  • “Social Wars” 91-88 BC

Sulla is hero and elected consul

  • Mithridates in Asia

Sulla given command, but Marius mingling in politics again with Sulpicius Rufus

  • Sulla recalled from command
slide7
1st Civil War - Sulla marches on Rome
  • 2nd Civil War – Marius & Cinna march on Rome

Reign of Terror

  • Sulla marches back – takes Rome and initiates longer Reign of Terror with PROSCRIPTIONS
  • 82-79 BC Sulla holds continuous dictatorship
sulla s changes
Sulla’s Changes
  • Military colonies (filled with his veterans)
  • Restoration of Senatorial powers
  • Weakening of Assembly (requires Senatorial approval for any legislation)
  • Weakening Tribuneship – limited to intercession
  • Reformed judicial system – standing courts and Senatorial juries
48 years of struggle left triumvirates
48 years of struggle left - Triumvirates
  • 1st Triumvirate – Pompey, J. Caesar, Crassus (60-49 BC)
  • 2nd Triumvirate – Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus (43-31 BC)

Power lies with the army.