MISCELLANEOUS DENTAL MATERIALS BY DR KHAWAJA RASHID HASSAN HEAD SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS DEPARTMENT W.M.D.C ABBOTTABAD
MISCELLANEOUS DENTAL MATERIALS • Materials used in MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY. • Materials used in ENDODONTICS. • Materials used in PERIODONTICS.
Maxillofacial materials INTRODUCTION • Maxillofacial materials are used to correct facial defects. CAUSES OF FACIAL DEFECTS • Cancer surgeries. • Accidents. • Congenital deformities. NOSES, EARS, EYES, ORBITS & OTHER PARTS OF HEAD AND NECK REGION ARE REPLACED BY THESE PROSTHESES
MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESES PROSTHETIC EYE PROSTHETIC EAR
MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESES PROSTHETIC NOSE
Maxillofacial materials • Following materials are used for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. • POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE. • POLYURETHANE. • ROOM TEMPERATURE-VALCUNIZED SILICONES. • OTHER ELASTOMERS.
Maxillofacial materials • POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE: • P.M.M.A was once commonly used for maxillofacial prostheses. • Still used occasionally to make artificial facial parts. • Look quiet realistic once properly pigmented. Hardness & stiffness of P.M.M.A is the main disadvantage.
Maxillofacial materials 2) POLYURETHANE: • Used as maxillofacial materials. • Formed by the reaction of diisocyanate & polyol in the presence of an initiator. • Reaction must be carried out in a dry atmosphere or carbon dioxide will result. • Processing temperature of 100 ̊C is reasonable.
Maxillofacial materials 3) ROOM TEMPERATURE VALCUNISED SILICONES: • Because of good physical & mechanical properties & favorable processing characteristics RTV-Silicones have become popular maxillofacial materials. • Used more often than any other material for fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis. • They are easy to color.
Maxillofacial materials 4) OTHER ELASTOMERS: • Several elastomers have been investigated for use as maxillofacial materials, including • Aliphatic polyurethanes. • Chlorinated polyurethane. • Organophosphazenes. • Silicone poly(methyl meth acrylate) block polymers.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS Endodontics is concerned with the physiology, morphology & pathology of the human dental pulp & periradicular tissues Treatments include: • Capping of exposed vital pulp. • Sealing of root canal space after removal of infected pulp. • Reconstruction with endodontic post & core systems in case of badly broken down tooth.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS • Vital pulp capping: Two types Indirect pulp capping Direct pulp capping • PULP CAPPING MATERIALS: • Calcium hydroxide cement. • Dentin bonding agents.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS b) ROOT FILLING MATERIALS: Most widely used root canal filling materials are basically a combination of • Obturating points & • Canal sealer cements. I) OBTURATING POINTS • Guttapercha points. • Metal points.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(OBTURATING POINTS) • GUTTA PERCHA POINTS: • Guttapercha is a rubber obtained from the trees in Malaysia. • Was introduced in U.K IN 1843. • Thermoplastic material. • Softens at 60-65 ̊C & melts at about 100 ̊C. • Cannot be heat sterilized but can be disinfected. • Guttapercha when cooled rapidly forms a crystalline β phase whereas when cooled slowly a denser crystalline α phase is formed. • α phase guttapercha has better thermoplastic characteristics and hence preferred to be used in hot guttapercha systems
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(OBTURATING POINTS) OBTURA II OBTURA III
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(OBTURATING POINTS) B) METAL POINTS: • Metals including gold, tin, lead & silver had been used as root canal filling materials. • Silver points were used mostly because of bactericidal effect. • Rigidity & ability to get corroded easily were the 2 main disadvantages of silver obturating points.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(ROOT CANAL SEALER MATERIALS) IDEAL PROPERTIES OF ROOT CANAL SEALER CEMENTS • Should be biocompatible. • Should be bacteriocidal or atleast bacteriostatic. • Easy to use. • Should be insoluble. • Should be free of air bubbles when mixed. • Floe to thin film thickness. • Should adapt to the canal walls & obturating points. • Should be radiopaque. • Should be easily removed in case of failure.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(ROOT CANAL SEALER MATERIALS) ROOT CANAL SEALER MATERIALS: • ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL. • GLASS IONOMER CEMENT. • CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CEMENT. • POLY DI METHYSILOXANE.
ENDODONTIC MATERIALS(POST & CORE SYSTEMS) PREFABRICATED POSTS: • Metal posts • Non threaded parallel sided posts. • Threaded parallel sided posts. • Non threaded tapered posts. • Threaded tapered posts. • Fibre reinforced resin posts • Carbon fibre reinforced posts. • Glass fibre reinforced posts. • Ceramic posts • Cosmopost. • Biopost. • Cetapost.
PERIODONTAL MATERIALS • Zinc oxide eugenol formulation. • Zinc oxide fatty acid formulation. • Formulation including polyacrylic acid, poly ethyl methacrylate, zinc oxide, n-butylphthalate & alcohol.
This Ends Your Science of Dental Materials Course GOOD LUCK FOR YOUR PROFESSIONAL EXAMZ