PEEKPMMA Kevlar PTFE PLA PC POM Chemical Engineering Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art Summer Research Internship Program, Summer 2013 Professor Benjamin Davis
Polyether Ether Ketone Rabia Akhtar and Ozzy Khan
History Markets The percentage share of world consumption of Victrex PEEK by sector for the year 2012.
Reactor design Tank Size: 3,400 L Temperature: 90ºC Time: 41.7 days/batch Batch size: 3750 kg Spools per batch: 4,650 Spools per day: 100 Spool size: 250’ 1” PEEK electrical sleeving
Polymethyl Methacrylate: PMMA Saijah Williams Mia Rodie
History and Markets • Discovered in 1877 by Fittig and Paul
Uses and Properties (pontiacgrandprix.net) 1972 Olympic Stadium- Munich, Germany Headlights made of PMMA Edge-lighting.com LG LCD television Lighting Applications of PMMA
Polymer Chemistry • PMMA is made of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is most commonly polymerized through free radical polymerization. • The application of PMMA traces back to the type of polymerization used.
Raw Materials and Production Process Methyl formate Acetone Hydrogen Cyanide
Reactor Design • Goal: 100 sheets of Plexiglas® per day • Amount of PMMA per year: 800 metric tons • Amount of time per batch: 5.6 minutes Equation 1
Kevlar By: Caroline Hunt & Isael Luperon
History and Market • Created in 1964 by Stephanie Kwolek • Produced by DuPont • First commercial use in 1971 • Mainly produced in USA • Costs : $12 - $27
Uses & Properties Advantages: • Tensile strength • Chemical resistance • Structural rigidity • Thermal resistance • Lightweight Disadvantages: • Absorbs moisture • Poor against compression • Poor against UV rays 6 5 7 2 3 4
Polymer Chemistry 1,4-phenylene-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) Terephthaloyl Chloride Hydrochloric Acid (byproduct) Poly-para-phenylene Terephtalamide (Kevlar)
Results of Reactor Design • Goal: 1,000 pairs of Kevlar gloves per day • Total monomer: 835 moles • Total solvent: 278 moles • Total volume of tank: 150 Liters • Time for one reaction: 9.7 seconds
Properties, Uses, and Production of Polytetrafluoroethylene By Sally Kramer Dr. Roy Plunkett
History, Discovery, Markets, Demand, Chemical Formula and Prices • Teflon • Roy Plunkett 1938 DuPont Company • Production rate of 900 tons per year in 1948 will grow to 240,000 tons per year by 2017 Figure 2
Polymer Chemistry, Raw Materials, and Production Process • CHCl3 + 2HF CHClF2 + 2HCl (1) • 2CHClF2 F2C=CF2 + 2HCl (2) • Fluorspar, water, sulfur, air, natural gas
Ethics and Safety • Carcinogens and birth defects • “Fracking” for natural gas • Don’t leave an empty Teflon coated pot or pan over an open flame! • If your pan starts to look like this, throw it away!
24.399 kg dimethylamine oxide dihydrate Reactor Design for Gaskets 87.14 kg TFE • Goal: 10,000 Teflon gaskets per day, each 12.947g • Ten hours per batch, two batches per day 8.714 kg glacial acetic acid 26,142 kg water 64.725 kg PTFE
Producing Polylactic Acid By: Kevin Garcia and Janki Tailor
History/ Discovery/ Introduction • Similar to petroleum based plastics but its biodegradable • Lactic acid discovered in 1780 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and PLA discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers. • First official PLA production plant launched in Blaire, Nebraska.
Markets/ Demand/ Prices • Used in fibers, packaging, and chemical products markets • Archer Daniels Midland Company, Cargill Inc., and Ecochem • 6.6 billion lbs. PLA produced annually$6 billion per year • Global lactic acid production: 40,000 tons per year Markets and Markets. http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/polylacticacid-387.html (accessed July 9th, 2013), Global Lactic Acid & Polylactic Acid (PLA) Market by Raw Materials, Types, Applications, and Potential Opportunities (Forecast to 2016).
Uses/ Properties Food Serviceware Excellent Packaging & Supply (EPS). http://www.packaging-int.com/suppliers/excellent-packaging-supply-eps.html (accessed August 7, 2013). Rigids The Potential of Bio-Based Plastics. Steeman, A. http://bestinpackaging.com/2009/11/30/the-potential-of-bio-based-plastics/ (accessed August 7, 2013).
Polymer Chemistry Monomer: L-Lactide (two lactic acids combined) Most methods for making PLA are not economically viable Methods to synthesis PLA: Step Growth Ring Open Polymerization L-Lactide Futerro. http://www.futerro.com/products_lactide.html(accessed August 7, 2013). Lactic Acid Intech. Jamshidian et al. http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegradation-life-of-science/biodegradable-polymers (accessed July 23, 2013).
Raw Materials/ Production/ Safety • PLA is eco-friendly, and releases carbon dioxide and methane when it degrades C orn Starch Fermentation Step Growth PLA Lactic Acid Ring -open Polymerization Lactide
Batch Design • Task: To design a batch reactor to make these cups • Goal: Make 10,000 plastic cups/day • Bulk Reaction • Catalyst used for reaction: Tin Octoate Fabri-Kal. http://www.fabri-kal.com/product/greenware-cold-drink-cups/ (accessed August 6, 2013)
Results for our Batch Reactor • Time per batch: 200 hours • Batches per year: 44 batches • Cups produced per batch: 82,955 cups • Mass of monomer used per cup: 48.65 g • Volume of batch reactor: 3.16 cubic meters Lactide PLA
Polycarbonate (PC) Paulina Babiak And Fradah Gold
Phenyl Groups and Safety Polymer Chemistry Methyl Groups Carbonate
Raw Materials $1.75/lb $0.94/lb $0.74/lb
Process Design for 10 Million CDs Phenol NaOH Acetone Phosgene Diphenyl carbonate Bisphenol- A Caustic soda NaCl (Condenser) 200 L 200ºC 153 min POLYCARBONATE
Polyoxymethylene (POM) By Olivia Kazior and Reecan Juarez
Introduction • General molecular structure: H—(—O—CH2—)n—OH • Discovered during the 1920’s by German chemist Staudinger • Production began in the U.S. in 1959 when it was finally made thermally stable by chemical company DuPont
markets Source: Platt, D. Engineering and High Performance Plastics Market Report; iSmithersRapra Publishing, 2003; pp 43
Properties & Uses • Great mechanical strength, toughness, and resistance to impact electronic and engineering appliances Reduced wear and friction transfer device • Resistance to moisture and shrink resistance paper • Can modify toxicity of viruses medicines Image Source: DuPont Chemical Company
Polymer chemistry Source: Schweitzer, C. E., Macdonald, R. N. and Punderson, J. O. (1959), Thermally stable high molecular weight polyoxymethylenes. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1: 158–163.
Safety & Production • Injection molding is commonly used to produce POM plastic. • Methanol (toxic) • Formaldehyde (toxic) • POM is generally non-toxic to living things. Sources: DuPont. http://plastics.dupont.com/plastics/pdflit/americas/delrin/H76836.pdf Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81-111/
Reactor Design • To make 1000 POM guitar picks per 15 seconds, you would need: • 100 metric tons of POM per year • Time to make one batch of POM: ~40 hours • Volume of reactor: 532liters • Moles of POM: 1445 moles per liter Image Source: Dunlop. http://www.jimdunlop.com/product/delrin