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Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 2007 N.K. Tovey (杜伟贤) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук School of Environmental Sciences / Norwich Business School NBS-M017 - 2013 • Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia
Teaching wall Library Student residences Original buildings
Nelson Court Constable Terrace
Low Energy Educational Buildings Nursing and Midwifery School Thomas Paine Study Centre ZICER Elizabeth Fry Building Medical School Phase 2 Medical School 4
The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost 6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. Would have scored 13 out of 10 on the Carbon Index Scale. 8
Constable Terrace - 1993 • Four Storey Student Residence • Divided into “houses” of 10 • units each with en-suite facilities • Heat Recovery of body and cooking • heat ~ 50%. • Insulation standards exceed 2006 • standards • Small 250 W panel heaters in • individual rooms.
Educational Buildings at UEA in 1990s Queen’s Building 1993 Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Elizabeth Fry Building Employs Termodeck principle and uses ~ 25% of Queen’s Building
Conservation: management improvements – User Satisfaction thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25% noise +26% Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in
ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust.
The ZICER Building – • Main part of the building • High in thermal mass • Air tight • High insulation standards • Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices
Operation of Main Building Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space 11 11
Operation of Main Building Filter 过滤器 Heater 加热器 Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs 空气通过空心的板层 Air enters the internal occupied space 空气进入内部使用空间 12 12
Space for future chilling 将来制冷的空间 The return air passes through the heat exchanger 空气回流进入热交换器 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Out of the building 出建筑物 Return stale air is extracted from each floor 从每层出来的回流空气 13 13
Operation of Regenerative Heat Exchangers Fresh Air Stale Air Stale air passes through Exchanger A and heats it up before exhausting to atmosphere Fresh Air is heated by exchanger B before going into building B A 14 14
Operation of Regenerative Heat Exchangers Fresh Air Stale Air After ~ 90 seconds the flaps switch over Stale air passes through Exchanger B and heats it up before exhausting to atmosphere Fresh Air is heated by exchanger A before going into building B A 15 15
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Warm air Warm air Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. 热量在进入房间之前被传递到空气中 板层储存来自于电器以及人体发出的热量 Winter Day
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Cold air Cold air Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures In late afternoon heating is turned off. Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room 热量在进入房间之前被传递到空气中 板层也把热散发到房间内 Winter Night
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Cool air Cool air Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day 把白天聚积的热量带走。 冷却板层使其成为来日的冷存储器 night ventilation/ free cooling Summer night
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Warm air Warm air Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning 空气在进入建筑使用空间前被预先冷却 混凝土结构吸收和储存了热量以减少/停止对空调的使用 Summer day
Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements 800 350 Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% 能源消耗（kWh/天） 原始供热方法 新供热方法 20 20
Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings 与其他建筑相比ZICER楼的能量需求 自然通风221508GJ 使用空调384967GJ 建造209441GJ Materials Production 材料制造 Materials Transport 材料运输 On site construction energy现场建造 Workforce Transport劳动力运输 Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy 基本功暖/供冷能耗 Functional Energy功能能耗 Refurbishment Energy改造能耗 Demolition Energy拆除能耗 28% 54% 51% 34% 29% 61%
Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER as built recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year.
ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor • Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays • Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays
Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive 24 24 24
Performance of PV cells on ZICER All arrays of cells on roof have similar performance respond to actual solar radiation The three arrays on the façade respond differently
120 150 180 210 240 Orientation relative to True North
Use of PV generated energy Peak output is 34 kW峰值34 kW Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient • Most use is for computers • DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient • Need an integrated approach
Original Way Heat was supplied to UEA campus • Three 8MW oil fired boilers - 83 – 85% efficient on full load, but only ~25% on low load. • Heat distributed via ~ 4 km of pipe work which was originally poorly insulated leading to losses of 500 kW or more – now ~ 200 kW. • ~ 1984 small 4 MW boiler added for use at times of low demand • 1987 all boilers converted to run on either gas or oil • 1998 – one boiler removed and 3 CHP units installed • 2004 – absorption chiller installed to provide cooling throughout campus
3% Radiation Losses 11% Flue Losses Gas Exhaust Heat Exchanger Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly 36% 61% Flue Losses 86% Heat Exchanger
UEA’s Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat
Conversion efficiency improvements Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 32
Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future Low Energy Buildings Photo-Voltaics Low Energy Buildings • Absorption Chilling • Advanced CHP using Biomass Gasification • World’s First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management • Low Energy Buildings • Effective Adaptive Energy Management • Photovoltaics • Combined Heat and Power Absorption Chilling Efficient CHP 33 33
Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 34 34
绝热 高温高压 Heat rejected High Temperature High Pressure 节流阀 Compressor 冷凝器 Throttle Valve Condenser 蒸发器 低温低压 压缩器 Evaporator Low Temperature Low Pressure 为冷却进行热提取 Heat extracted for cooling A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit
外部热 Heat from external source 绝热 高温高压 Heat rejected High Temperature High Pressure 吸收器 Desorber 节流阀 冷凝器 Throttle Valve Condenser 热交换器 Heat Exchanger 蒸发器 低温低压 Evaporator Low Temperature Low Pressure W ~ 0 吸收器 为冷却进行热提取 Absorber Heat extracted for cooling Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated
A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW 吸附冷却器 • Uses Waste Heat from CHP • provides most of chilling requirements in summer • Reduces electricity demand in summer • Increases electricity generated locally • Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually
The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power • Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands • Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat • Will have under 7 year payback • Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills • Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing • student numbers by 250%
Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future Photo-Voltaics Absorption Chilling Efficient CHP Advanced Biomass CHP using Gasification 39
Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling 40
Target Day Results of the “Big Switch-Off” With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?
UEA’s Pathway to a Low Carbon Future: A summary Good Management • Raising Awareness Using Renewable Energy Improving Conversion Efficiency Offset Carbon Emissions 42
Conclusions UEA has achieved Carbon reductions by: • Constructing Low Energy Buildings • Effective adaptive energy management which has typically reduced energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. • Use of Renewable Energy: Photovoltaic electric generation but opportunities were missed which would have made more optimum use of electricity generated. • The existing CHP plant reduced carbon emissions by around 30% • Adsorption chilling has been a win-win situation reducing summertime electricity demand and increasing electricity generated locally. • Awareness raising of occupants of buildings can lead to significant savings • By the end of 2013, UEA should have reduced its carbon emissions per student by 70% compared to 1990.