Nominations and Campaigns Caucuses Vs. Primaries History of Conventions.doc
McGovern-Fraser Commission • End of the “Smoke-Filled Room” • Convention Delegates would be selected by PRIMARIES • Limits the power of Party Leaders • Democrats: Superdelegates 15% for “Peer Review”
Frontloading • Early Caucuses and Primariesreceive too much media attention- gives the media too much power to label winners and losers. • Distorts the campaign.
Money and Campaigns Federal Election Campaign Act (1974) • Initiated Public Financing of Elections- the Presidential Election Fund (Matching Funds in the primaries with strings attached). Led to the modern “Clean Elections” Movement. • Provided for federal funding in the General Election- in 2004 Bush & Kerry got $75 million. • Limited individual contributions to $1000- in 2008 the amount increased to $2500. • Required candidates to report all contributions and account for how the money was spent. • Created the Federal Election Commission.
FECA Legal Loopholes • Soft Money- unlimited contributions to the Party. Buckley v. Valeo (1976): $ = Speech • McCain-Feingold Act (2002) banned soft money & issue ads 60 days before a general election, unless the ad is paid for by a FEC regulated PAC. Created New Loopholes. . . 527’s • McConnell v. FEC (2003) said McCain-Feingold was constitutional in a 5-4 decision. 2. Political Action Committees (PACs)- created by interest groups to influence policy through campaign contributions.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 2010 Rules that corporations may spend freely to support or oppose candidates for president and Congress. The court overturns Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, saying that “the expenditure ban invalidated" in Buckley v. Valeoapplies to corporations and unions, not just individuals. The ruling does not affect prohibition on direct contributions to candidates from corporations and unions . . . SUPER PAC’s http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-january-17-2012/colbert-super-pac---not-coordinating-with-stephen-colbert
Political Action Committees The Sky’s the Limit for the Amount PAC’s can Spend • PAC’s act independently of the candidate. • PAC’s must register with the FEC. • 527’s are like PAC’s, but don’t register with the FEC (non profit – register w/IRS) & can receive unlimited soft money contributions. • Examples of 527’s in the 2004 Election: Swift Boat Veterans for Truth & MoveOn.org. For More Info on Political Action Committees
Changes in the Way Corporations Can Finance Campaigns • Changes in the Way Corporations Can Finance Campaigns - Graphic - NYTimes.com • Lobbyists Get Potent Weapon in Campaign Finance Ruling - NYTimes.com
2008 Democratic Primary 8 Minute Summary of the Longest Primary Battle in American Political History: http://link.brightcove.com/services/link/bcpid271557392/bctid1593347006