Chapter 11, Section 1 Notes • Title: The Road to San Jacinto • Main Idea: Sam Houston ordered the Texas army to retreat, and panic spread as the Mexican troops moved deeper into Texas. • Key Terms: massacre
I. Santa Anna Remains in Texas • The Texas cause seemed hopeless in March of 1836. The Mexican army was all over Texas. • Santa Anna ordered his troops to burn all towns. • He refused to return to Mexico until the Texas rebellion was crushed. • He placed General Filisola in charge of occupying Central and East Texas.
II.Houston Builds the Texas Army • Houston arrives in Gonzales on March 11 and finds 370 volunteers (many untrained) who had responded to Travis’s letter for help. He also found out the Alamo had fallen from scout Deaf Smith. • Result? Houston plans a retreat east to join Fannin’s troops from Goliad in Victoria.
III. Houston’s Army Retreats • On March 13, Houston’s troops begin its withdrawal from Gonzales. Juan Seguin is ordered to stay behind and burn the town and its provisions. • The army moved east and crossed the Colorado River at Burnham’s Crossing, which was flooded by heavy rains. • Delayed, Houston spent 9 days training his troops while more volunteers arrived from the USA.
III. Houston’s Army Retreats D. After learning about the massacre at Goliad and Santa Anna’s army moving towards him, he ordered another retreat east towards the Brazos River . E. Result? Anger and resentment towards Houston—the Texans wanted to fight NOW!
III. Houston’s Army Retreats (3) Reasons Why Houston Retreated He believed his forces were still too weak; they were untrained and outnumbered. The farther east the Mexican army went; their supply lines would be stretched. In East Texas, the Texans might get help (i.e. reinforcements) from the USA.
IV. Panic Causes the Runaway Scrape A. Hundreds of civilian Texans feared for their lives; so they packed up everything they could and headed east towards the Sabine River—this became known as the Runaway Scrape • (3) Reasons Why This Journey Was Miserable! • Heavy spring rains • Lack of food • Sickness
V. Houston Trains His Army • Houston led his army to Groce’s Plantation near present-day Hempstead, to train, march, and drill. • Bad weather fueled bad tempers, as some grew impatient with Houston. • Ad-interim President David G. Burnet sent Houston a letter urging him to attack Santa Anna. • Houston refused; but relied on scouting reports from Hendrick Arnold who gathered information as he posed as a runaway slave in the Mexican camps.
VI. The Mexican Army Moves East By April 7, Santa Anna had crossed over the Colorado and Brazos Rivers at San Felipe leaving slower units behind. When Santa Anna learned that President Burnet and his cabinet (or advisors) were at Harrisburg, the Mexican leader sent troops to the city. But when they arrived there April 15, they learned Texas officials had already fled to New Washington on Galveston Bay.
VI. The Mexican Army Moves East D. As Houston moved his army towards the San Jacinto River, he received 2 six-pound cannons called the “Twin Sisters” as a gift from the people of Cincinnati, Ohio. On April 18, Houston set his army along the banks of Buffalo Bayou to confront the Mexican Army. Tomorrow we will learn how Sam Houston and the Texas Army soundly defeated the Mexican Army at San Jacinto!
Assignments for Today • 11-1 Guided Reading/Section Quiz. • Read 11-2, pp. 252-259. • Study Ch. 11 Vocabulary for Quiz Friday. • Wednesday/Thursday: • 11-2 Power Notes • Sam Houston Acrostic • 11-2 GR/SQ