PART 11. Classic definition of family2. Family structure and composition3. Functions of family4. Four traditional elements of family formation5. Complexities of defining family
*A cultural and social construction. The meaning of the family is relative depending on the cultural context of the person being asked. FAMILY Social Construction Theory is concerned with the ways we think about and use categories to structure our experience and analysis of the world. (Jackson, Penrose)
Family could vary in terms: • Size • Membership (who are members of the family) • Values and Beliefs • Formation • Type (marriage types) Family variation can be manifested through different cultural aspects like architecture, rituals, practices, material objects, and other behavioral manifestations.
FAMILY A social institution. Institution is a s_____l st____ture or mechanism that creates s____l or____ and co_______n. (examples?) *Has undergone multiple transformations historically, but has remained intact.
“A social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, and reproduction. FAMILY’S CLASSIC DEFINITION
FAMILY’S CLASSIC DEFINITION It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain (extended family) a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, owned or adopted, of the sexuallycohabiting adults.” (Murdock, 1949 in Medina, 2001: 12-13)
How about some cultures in which cohabiting couples do not live together or do not even consider marriage. Mosuo (pronounced as Mósuō) People “Walking Marriages” (Mutual Affection)
How does that work? The man usually asks the permission of the woman for a home visit. Visits are usually kept secret and are done after dark. Man spends the night with the woman and returns to his home in the morning. Man can have as many sexual partners as desired. Couples do not share property and man does not have responsibility with his offspring.
Types of Family Nuclear Extended
*Common: two parents and their children *Nuanced: two or more individuals affiliated by blood (parent and child), marriage (husband and wife), or adoption (adopted child) Structure and composition: Nuclear family
*Based on consanguineous (genetic; kinship) and affinal relations (through marriage) *Myth: NF as isolated and detached from other kin Structure and composition: Nuclear family
*Nuclear family + anyone who does not belong to the nuclear (at least three generations). Structure and composition: Extended family
*Three interlocking nuclear families: family of origin, family of procreation, and family of affinal relations. Structure and composition: Extended family
*Regulate sexual access and activity Functions of family
*NO monkey business, ideally no extra marital affairs Functions of family
Functions of family • *Provide an orderly context for procreation. • Birth Spacing • Number of children
Reproduction Function It is important to know whether your partner has the capacity to bear a child or not. Thy Womb One More Try
Functions of family Nurture and socialize children (values, knowledge, skills, etc.) Ensure economic stability Provide security and emotional support
1. Mate selection2. Marriage3. Residence 4. Sexual intercourse 5. Children ELEMENTS OF FAMILY FORMATION
Mate Choice or Mate Selection Free Choice of Spouse Free Choice with Parental Approval Arranged Marriages
Family formation: Mate selection • Bride Price • Love • Attraction • Other reasons
Who to marry Endogamy vs. Exogamy Homogamy vs. Heterogamy Hypergamy vs. Hypogamy Family formation: Mate selection
Family formation: Mate selection Polyandry • How many to marry (monogamy vs. polygamy)
Example Nyinba people of Nepal (Fraternal Polyandry)
Question: What do you think is the reason behind polyandry among the Nyinba people of Nepal?
Family formation: Mate selection Polygyny
Example Chagga People
Family formation: Mate selection • Attraction • Attraction may vary depending on one’s cultural standard • Eyes, ears • Nawa of Africa value elongated labia majora
Love—strong emotional attachment with sex desire and tenderness. ‘Romantic love complex’ in relationships (i.e., falling in love as a highly desirable basis of courtship and marriage) is rare. That thing called ‘LOVE’
Caveat: • Love is not necessarily the foundation of marriage. • Marriage or intimate relationship is not always like lying in the bed of roses. • Marriage is not a always like a fairy tale or a Romeo and Juliet Story as described in the song I CAN LOVE YOU LIKE THAT.
Courtship and Mate Selection • The Love Relationship • Coupling of love and marriage not universal Many world cultures give priority to factors other than romantic feelings
Other forms Sister Exchange Marriage- Among the Turkic and the Yanomamo. Levirate- if a woman’s husband dies, she should marry one of her husband’s brothers, brother-in-law marriage. Sororate- if a man’s wife dies, he should marry one of his wife’s sister, sister-in-law marriage.
Reasons for marriage Attraction Companionship Social Pressure Economic
Other Factors • Race • Age • Religion • Propinquity
Review Marriage involving one wife and several husbands: P___________________ Marriage involving one husband and several wives: P___________________ A type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow: L_________ Marriage A type of marriage in which the sister of a deceased woman is obligated to marry her sister’s widower: S______ Marriage This usually involves the simultaneous marriage of a brother-sister pair from two households: Si______ Ex____ Marriage Traditional definition of family: A s____lg____p characterized by c______n r_____ce, e_____icco_______n, and r______on. Hypergamy Vs. Hypogamy Endogamy Vs. Exogamy
Families can vary across societies Insert Macionis, page 465
Finding a mate • School • Church • Bars (Show Video Clipping of Amnesia Girl)
Finding a mate • Dating Website • Family and Friends • Work • Social Gatherings • Others
Finding a mate • Self-Advertising • “I don't care what Justin Timberlake was whining about.... I'm fun, outgoing, good looking, intelligent, adventurous--and seeking the same. I need someone who is confident in themselves enough to handle me :) I'm liberal and refuse to be closeted in any fashion, I do not want to pretend to be anyone else other than who I am. So if you consider yourself extremely opinionated and conservative on many of today's issues... • I'm just saying we may not get along too well lol. I went to college, I'm going for more education, I need to be able to converse with a balanced audience on things. If you are serious...reply with a picture (there's no excuse to not have one with today's tech in my opinion) Put the title of the last book you read in the subject line....don't forget the pic! ”
Finding a mate I'm Desiree, 31. I'm 5'6", curvy but well-proportioned, long brown hair and brown eyes. I'm a bit quiet and shy, but friendly. I enjoy walking/hiking be it exploring a city, a park, a mountain or a beach, biking, visiting zoos & aquariums, public gardens, museums, libraries/bookstores, watching movies and sometimes just doing silly things like mini golf, bowling or ice skating. I don't have any skill, but it's fun to laugh at yourself sometimes. I'm not sure exactly what I'm looking for at this point, but half the fun is figuring it out as we go. I do have a few requirements...single, Caucasian, 28-40, employed, no smoking, drugs or disease and honesty is a must. hope to hear from you, your pic gets mine. take care • Self-Advertising
Dating and Courtship Getting to know each other. But there is a danger, it can lead to sexual advances. See Video (Life as we know it)
The Proposal When the relationship grows and matures, there comes the proposal. Traditional (Harana or serenade and render labor ) Modern (Show video, Valentine’s Day)
Preparation Before Wedding Pamanhikan or the wedding entreat is a ritual or an activity in which the groom asks the permission from the bride’s parents to get married. In Korea, they have what they call the hahm which is a festival before the wedding day. Others would call it MEET THE PARENTS (insert video)
Family formation: Marriage ceremony • When • June Bride? • The Lucky 8 and other interesting number combinations (12-12-2012, 11-12-2013, 12-08-2012) • Other superstitious belief