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Chapter 29.4. A Closer Look at Leaves. AP Biology Spring 2011. Leaf Structure and Function. Variation in leaf types: Eudicot leaves: Simple: undivided, many lobed Compound: blades divided as leaflets Thin, flat blade, which is attached to the stem by means of a stalk, or petiole.

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chapter 29 4

Chapter 29.4

A Closer Look at Leaves

AP Biology

Spring 2011

leaf structure and function
Leaf Structure and Function
  • Variation in leaf types:
    • Eudicot leaves:
    • Simple: undivided, many lobed
    • Compound: blades divided as leaflets
    • Thin, flat blade, which is attached to the stem by means of a stalk, or petiole
leaf structure and function3
Leaf Structure and Function
  • Monocot leaves:
    • Flat blades, the base of which forms a sheath around the stem
leaf structure and function4
Leaf Structure and Function
  • Evergreens: pants that maintain their leaves throughout the year
  • Deciduous plants: lose their leaves as winter approaches
leaf structure and function5
Leaf Structure and Function
  • Leaves are adapted to local environmental conditions
  • Most plants orient their leaves perpendicular to the suns rays to collect energy for photosynthesis
  • Plants growing in hot and dry regions orient their leaves parallel with the suns rays to conserve water and reduce heat absorption
leaf fine structure
Leaf Fine Structure
  • Epidermis: covers all leaf surfaces
  • May be smooth or covered with hairs, scales, or other specializations
  • Has small openings or stomata which allow for gas exchange
  • Waxy cuticle covers epidermis to minimize water loss
leaf fine structure7
Leaf Fine Structure
  • Mesophyll: photosynthetic parenchyma
    • Photosynthetic parenchyma cells (in mesophyll layer) are located between the extensive surface areas of the upper and lower epidermis
leaf fine structure8
Leaf Fine Structure
  • Mesophyll:
    • CO2 enters through stomata and diffuses through air spaces into the photosynthetic tissue
    • O2 byproduct is released from the plant
leaf fine structure9
Leaf Fine Structure
  • Mesophyll:
    • Dicots have two layers of mesophyll
    • The columnar and spongy parenchyma
    • Monocots are not divided into two layers
      • Single layer
veins
Veins
  • Veins: the leafs vascular bundles
  • Form a network for water, solutes, and photosynthetic products
  • Eudicots: large veins branch into smaller one embedded in the mesophyll
  • Monocots: veins are similar in length and run parallel with the leafs long axis