NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies
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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies Jeff Masek Garik Gutman April 28, 2014 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies Jeff Masek Garik Gutman April 28, 2014. Background. Sentinel-2 is the “Landsat-like” component of the EU Copernicus environmental monitoring program MSI VSWIR coverage from 0.43-2.3 micron (10-60m resolution)

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NASA FY14 Landsat / Sentinel-2 Studies

Jeff Masek


April 28, 2014


  • Sentinel-2 is the “Landsat-like” component of the EU Copernicus environmental monitoring program

    • MSI VSWIR coverage from 0.43-2.3 micron (10-60m resolution)

    • Sun-synch orbit @ 786km altitude w/ 10:30am crossing

    • 290km swath width (+/- 10.1 degrees at telescope)

    • 10-day repeat at equator for each satellite (5 days w/ Sentinel-2a,b; 2-3 days with S2ab + L8)

  • Sentinel-2a expected to launch April 2015

    • Initial focus on Europe & Africa, global acquisitions start ~1 year later

    • Sentinel-2b to launch 2016

  • Sentinel “free and open” data policy now ratified by EU

  • USGS and ESA working to secure “mirror” S2 archive at EROS

What s needed to make full use of sentinel 2 data
What’s Needed to Make Full Use of Sentinel-2 Data?

  • Cross-calibration with Landsat / MSI Characterization

  • Access to S2 L1C Data (USGS)

    • TOA, orthorectified reflectance

    • 100 x 100km UTM tiles

  • “Fundamental” Data Records

    • S2 directional surface reflectance

    • L8 (+ Landsat archive) surface reflectance

    • Merged reflectance product

  • Higher-level products from merged record

Nasa preparations for sentinel 2
NASA Preparations for Sentinel-2

  • FY12 & FY13:

    • Initial support for participation in ESA users’ meetings (Woodcock, Vermote)

    • Cross-comparison of integrating spheres used for pre-launch radiometric calibration; analysis of MSI solar diffuser (Markham, Astrium, Czpala-Meyers)

    • Prototype funding of BRDF and atmospheric corrections (Vermote, Justice, Claverie, CESBIO)

  • FY14: Augmentation of selected NASA awards to accelerate preparation for Sentinel-2, including integration with Landsat archive

    • Lays ground work for sustained effort to generate a merged Landsat/S2 data recordandhigher-level products suite (?)

    • Mixture of project planning and initial algorithm development/prototyping

  • FY15: Solicitation of NASA Land Imaging Science Team through LCLUC Program (TBD)

Proposed Sentinel-2 / Landsat Architecture



US Data




- Direct


- ESA mirror

NASA Earth



NASA R&A, Applications



USGS, USDA collab

Landsat+S2 Algorithms

- Cross-calibration

- atmospheric correction

- regridding…


Network connectivity and sentinel 2 data flow
Network Connectivity and Sentinel-2 Data Flow

CCRS – Canada Center for Remote Sensing

EROS – Earth Resources Observation and Science

PACS – Processing and Archive Centers

Courtesy John Dwyer, USGS

L1c access usgs concept of operations
L1C Access: USGS Concept of Operations

  • The Sentinel-2 MSI Level-1C (L1C) product is analogous to Landsat Level-1T (L1T). Approximately 800- 900GB of raw data to be downlinked per day will be processed to L1C by ESA.

  • L1C products areorthorectifiedTop of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance provided as 100x100km2 tiles of 500MB each in UTM projection. L1C products are 16-bit with radiometric conversion coefficients and a QA band.

  • USGS will pull L1C products from PACs for distribution to NASA Ames, Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS), and the general public at no cost.

  • NASA Ames to process L1Cdata to surfacereflectance that will be pulled back to EROS for archive and distribution.

  • USGS estimates for the data archive and

    distribution of Sentinel-2 L1C and

    surface reflectance (SR) products assume

    daily ingest volume of 1.6GB per satellite.

  • Total data archive 6.4TB per day

    • L1C data archive of 3.2TB per day

    • SR data archive of 3.2TB per day

  • Level-1C reprocessed data will

    be replaced – no concurrent versions

Courtesy John Dwyer, USGS

NASA FY14 Augmentation Teams


Proposed Investigation

Period of performance: ~April 2014 - April 2015

Deliverables are a key element

Fy14 augmentation planning activities
FY14 Augmentation: Planning Activities

  • Cross-calibration & characterization plan (Markham, Czapla-Myers, Helder, Schott)

    • Continued pre-launch calibration activities (e.g. diffuser characterization, SADE)

    • MSI characterization via pre-launch data, DIRSIG simulations

      • What variance will be introduced into an uncorrected time series by mixing Landsat and S2?

    • Post-launch planning (joint vicarious campaigns, PICS characterization, DIRSIG, etc)

  • Fundamental Data Record (reflectance) plan (Roy, VermoteSchaaf, Dungan)

    • What should a merged S2/Landsat reflectance product look like?

    • What algorithms are required to generate this product?

    • Data formats, compositing, grids, tiling approaches

    • Data processing /systems architecture

      • How to phase in processing (e.g. geographic domain)

    • Uncertainty estimation (validation plan)

  • Higher-level Products Plan (Woodcock, Justice, Ganguly)

    • Should the team pursue MODIS-style higher-level products during 2015-2017?

    • If so, what products have highest priority?

      • For what attributes do we need near-daily repeat and 30-m resolution? Why?

      • Geographic/temporal domain? (Phase in starting with Europe/Africa test sites, then Americas?)

      • GTOS ECV’s

      • GEO focus areas

      • NASA Earth Science research areas…

    • Collaboration with USGS products & ECV efforts

    • What algorithmic approaches are most promising?

    • Data processing /systems architecture

    • Uncertainty estimation (validation plan)

Fy14 augmentation algorithms
FY14 Augmentation: Algorithms

  • Cloud/Shadow/Water masking (Woodcock)

  • Atmospheric correction (Vermote)

    • 6S radiative transfer?

    • Aerosol source: image-based, MODIS, Sentinel-3?

  • BRDF correction (Schaaf, Claverie, Schott)

    • NBAR? Uniform solar geometry?

    • Source for BRDF?

    • Testing via DIRSIG

  • Compositing (Roy)

    • To what temporal grain?

    • To what spatial resolution, extent (tiling)?

  • What can realistically be accomplished by mid-2015?

  • Integration into overall processing framework via NEX

Prototype merged radiometric record
Prototype Merged Radiometric Record

Preliminary algorithm flow chart prepared by Martin Claverie (UMD)

Nasa earth exchange nex components
NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Components

Nemani et al., 2011, Trans. of Eos

Nex applications crop water management
NEX Applications: Crop Water Management

Weekly composites:

L5 & L7 & MODIS


Melton et al. (in press)

Courtesy Forrest Melton, ARC


  • Team coordination

    • Telecons, Meetings?

  • Scope of activities

    • Are near-term activities & deliverables clear? Are there other activities missing?

    • How ambitious should we be (geographic extent, range of products, …) in the short-term? Long-term?

    • Should we be looking at other sensors (AWIFS, CBERS)?

  • Coordination with other groups

    • ESA


    • USGS & Landsat Science Team