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Introduction Week 1. By Saparila Worokinasih. Definition of Operation Research The History of Operation Research Models in Operation Research Components in Operation Research Steps in Operations Research. 1.Definition of Operation Research.

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introduction week 1

IntroductionWeek 1

By Saparila Worokinasih


Definition of Operation Research

  • The History of Operation Research
  • Models in Operation Research
  • Components in Operation Research
  • Steps in Operations Research
1 definition of operation research
1.Definition of Operation Research
  • Operations Research is an application that models scientificallywith complex issues incontrol systems inlimitation both non-human resources and human resources in the world of industry, business, government in order to make the best decisions.
  • Another term of Operations Research (OR); Management Science , Quantitative Business Analysis, Quantitative Methods, or Decision Science
2 the history of operation research
2. The History of Operation Research
  • Operations Research (operations research) began among the military in the beginning of the Second World War.
  • Allocate resources or inputs are limited to serving a variety of military operations and activities within each operation efficiently and effectively.

Purpose to apply a scientific approach to solving problems or issues listed above plus the issue of military strategy and tactical.RO initially developed in England in the fields of military, industrial, business and civil government, then developed very rapidly in the United States, since 1951. Now the development has expanded to reach developing countries like Indonesia.


As a problem-solving techniques, RO should beregarded as a science and art (Taha, 1996).      As a science provides the techniques and      mathematical algorithms (models) to solve      problem right decision.      As an art, because the success of all stages of      a mathematical model largely depends on      creativity and personal skillsanalyzingdecision-making.

3 models in operation research
3. Models in Operation Research

There are several models in operations research, started in the form of simple to complex. The models are: Physical Model    This model is a model that describes a sistem are physical, such as images, maps, globe, blue print. Model Diagram    This model describes the situation as a dynamic system    as an analytical tool to learn something. model diagram    is more widely used than the physical model. Mathematical Model    RO In most applications, it is assumed that the purpose    and the boundary of a model can be expressed Seca-ra mathematically as a function of decision variables. model    mathematical ", ie a model that uses symbols    mathematically. This model is most widely used in RO.


Simulation model    Often "real situation" we are facing is far beyond the    ability of mathematical techniques are available, because the system or    real situation is too complicated mathematically presented a    adequate, or the model is likely to prove too complex for    solved A different approach to modeling    complex systems is the "simulation". In the simulation model    This relationship between input and output is not explicitly stated    as in the mathematical model. This model mimics the behavior of the system    who study the interactions or relations of its components    logically well defined (in the form of "if / then")    Weakness of the simulation model, its development is quite expensive. so thatga large implementation costs and problems    can not be solved optimally. By contrast in the models    mathematical work, usually can be managed within. calculations. Heuristic Model     Often solving extremely complex mathematical models, so the Solu-     the optimum can be solved with a very long calculation     which, To solve this problem heuristic methods can be used,     the method of settlement are based on "intuition" or rule-     empirical rules (experience).

4 components in operation research
4. Components in Operation Research

    There are two main components in operations research, are:    (1) Purpose          is the end result to be achieved by          how to choose the most appropriate one action system are           studied. Objectives include:          1. are profit oriented (maximizing profits or              minimize costs,          2. non-profit purposes (good service to costumers)    (2) The factors (variables, parameters and constraints)         Once the destination is determined, then choose the best action to achieve the goal. The action should be identified in the factors of the systemthat can be controlled by the decision maker.         Selection of action and identification of these factors are very         depends on the skills of decision makers.

5 steps in operations research
5. Steps in Operations Research
  • Define the problem,
  • Develop the model,
  • Obtain input data,
  • Develop solutions,
  • Test the solution,
  • Implementation of the results

The previous steps must be completed before the next step begins.In many cases, one or several steps before the final result will be modified extensively implemented.This leads to the next steps are also changed.In some cases all, test the solution will describe the steps that a model or input data may be inaccurate or incorrect. In this case, means that all steps are air-sequence will be modified as well.


PHASE-PHASE IN OPERATIONS RESEARCHFormulate or analyze the issue so clear what purpose will be achieved (objectives)The establishment of mathematical models to reflect the problem to be solved. Usually the model is expressed in the form of equations that describe the relationship between inputs and outputs and objectives to be achieved in the form of objective function (objective function).Finding the solution of the model that has been made ​​in the previous stage, for example by using the simplex method.Test the model and solving the result of the use of models. Often also referred to perform validation.


EXPLANATION PHASE METHODThe first stage, have to formulate or define the problem to be solved in accordance with the objectives to be achieved based on objective circumstances. Usually have to pay attention to three things: First, the exact description of the objectives to be achieved, a second, rather than the identification of alternatives in the decision concerning a system, the third, recognizing the existence of restrictions (Limitation, restriction, and also the necessary requirements the system concerned with solving problems).


The second phase, regarding the establishment of a mathematical model, for example by using linear equations and inequalities as in linear programming. Models must be made ​​in such a way as to represent the fact that the actual.

  • The third stage, with regard to solving the model, which usually solves the equation / inequality math. In the mathematical model, the solution is achieved by optimization techniques and the model produces an optimum solution.

he fourth stage, the tests or perform validation of the model. A model is said to legitimate (valid), if it can provide a reliable prediction of the outcome of a process system, in addition to recognized the inappropriateness of the model to represent the real situation occurs (real world)The fifth stage is the last stage, is the stage for the implementation of results-solving model has tested its validity. The task is the task of implementing operations research (Researchers operation).