History The common myth, that Marco Polo has brought noodles to Italy and so introduced pasta is just exactly that – A Myth. It is an undisputed fact although is, that the Chinese were consuming noodles as early as 2500 BC. Fact also is, that Jewish Rabbis argued if noodles violet Jewish dietary law as it appears in the Jerusalem Talmund in the 5th century A.D. Fact is, that 9th century Syrian dictionary defines itriyya as string like pasta shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking. Fact is, that a 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of several layers of rolled-out dough alternating with meat stuffing and baked in an oven. Fact is, Arabs in the 12th century documented the existence of long thin dried noodles in Southern Italy. Marco Polo’s travels were well documented to have ended late in the 13th century (1294). At this time, Ravioli, Macaroni and Lasanga had long been a delicacy.
Pasta Dried Italian-style pasta is made from durum wheat semolina, which gives it a light yellow color and a slightly chewy texture when properly prepared. It is traditionally cooked “al dente” The finest Italian dried pastas are flattened between copper rollers. Pasta is made either by extrusion, where the ingredients are forced through holes in a plate known as a die, or by lamination, in which dough is kneaded, folded, rolled to thickness, then cut by slitters. Fresh pasta cooks quickly and has a short shelf life while dried pasta can be stored for up to three years.
Pasta / Dough Composition Regular pasta dough is in general a mixture of durum wheat flour, water and egg although for • Whole wheat • Refined finely milled flour or non refined with “coarse” grains • Semolina • made with the addition of wheat semolina for more “bite” and elasticity of the dough • Whole wheat and egg • As above with the addition of egg • Whole meal • Term used to describe whole wheat and whole wheat flour mixture used during the production of the dough
Commercial Pasta Products • Fresh pasta • All pastas are fresh in it’s initial state of production. • Fresh pasta has a short shelve life due to high humidity of the dough • Dried Pasta • Fresh pasta that has been dried. • Modern machine made pasta does not need egg in the dough. Regular dried pasta therefore mostly does not include eggs
Commercial Pasta Products • Fresh Egg Pasta • Pasta that has been produced with fresh eggs • Egg Pasta • Pasta that is produced with egg, usually pasteurized egg, whole or yolk only • Milk Pasta • Pasta made with milk instead of water • Organic Pasta • Pasta has been produced with organic products only • Vegetable Pasta • Pasta with the additions of vegetable purees or juices • Pasta by most countries laws is not to be colored by food coloring but by an added product – red (tomato), green (spinach) brown (whole wheat flour), black (squid ink), purple (beet root) etc.
Commercial Pasta Products • Flavored Pasta • Pasta dough that has been flavored with spices, herbs or seasoning mixtures (turmeric, basil, pepper, thyme, Cajun spice etc) • Stuffed Pasta • Various shapes such as Ravioli, Angolotti, Tortellini with a host of fillings from vegetarian to meat and seafood • Flat pasta (from wide to narrow) • Lasagna, Pappardelle, Fettuccine, Tagliatelle, Linguine • Rolled and then cut to size
Types of Pasta by shape Shaped for all other shapes than flat pastas. The dough is forced through disks with different shaped wholes by a machine hence creating shaped pasta. • Round long pasta (from thick to thin) • Buccatini, Spaghetti, Spaghettini, Fedelini, Capellini (angel hair) • Tubed (Tubular) pasta • Ziti, Penne, Macaroni, Spira, Rigatoni • Shaped pasta • Conchiglie, Farfalle, Fusilli, Orzo, Rotelle • Chitarra pasta • Home made pasta is cut through a metal stringed”Guitar” to achieve spaghetti. Although square and not round
Filled Pasta & Pasta dishes • Ravioli • square shaped, two layers of thin pasta with any filling – ricotta-spinach, seafood, braised meat etc • Angolotti – • Similar to Ravioli but from singly round sheet of pasta that is folded in half • Tortellini • Same as Angolotti but the end are folded inward like a croissant
Filled Pasta & Pasta dishes • Canneloni • rolled pasta sheet with filling. Baked in tomato sauce and covered with béchamel and cheese (Pecorino, Parmesan) • Lasagna • Layered pasta sheets with filling (tomato sauce, meat spinach etc.) and baked in the oven
Noodles Terminology A noodle is a thin strip of unleavened dough that has been rolled, dried and cooked in boiling water The term often refers to moist, cooked noodles, since it has connotations of curviness and slipperiness, but also to dried noodles that must be reconstituted by boiling or by soaking in water. The word noodle derives from Latin nodus (knot), via German Nudel (noodle, pasta).
Terminology A noodle includes all varieties from all origins, whereas Pasta refers specifically to Italian style noodle products such as spaghetti, penne, fettucine, or linguini. The Chinese, Arab and Italian people all claimed to have been the first to create this string-like food, though the first written account of noodles is from the East Han Dynasty between 25 and 220 CE. In
Type of Noodles by primary ingredient Egg Noodles usually made of a mixture of egg and wheat flour Asian egg noodles - also known as ba mee in Thai, common throughout China and South-East Asia. Lochshen - wide egg noodles used in Eastern European Jewish cuisine Pasta - Italian fresh egg pasta Reshteh -Middle Eastern egg noodles
Types of Asian Noodles by primary ingredient Wheat Mee pok (麪薄) flat, yellow Chinese noodles, popular in South East Asia Lamian (拉麵) hand pulled Chinese noodles Chuka men (中華麺) Japanese for "Chinese noodles", used for ramen, chanpon and yakisoba Udon (うどん) thick Japanese wheat noodles Somen (そうめん) very thin Japanese wheat noodles
Type of Asian Noodles by primary ingredient Rice Been Hoon / Sen Mee / Mǐfěn - thin rice noodles also known as Rice vermicelli Kwai Teow / Sen Yai / Ho Fun - flat translucent rice noodles Mung bean or potato starch Cellophane noodles - also known as glass noodles orbean vermicelli
Type of Asian Noodles by primary ingredient Buckwheat Soba (蕎麦) - Japanese buckwheat noodles Naengmyeon - Korean noodles made of buckwheat and sweet potato starch. Slightly chewier than soba.
Type of Noodle dishes Fried noodles dishes made of noodles stir fried with various meats, seafood or vegetables. Typical examples include chow mein, mee goreng, hokkien mee, yakisoba and pad thai Noodle soup noodles served in broth. Examples are beef noodle soup, phở, ramen, laksa, saimin and batchoy Chilled noodles noodles are sometimes served in a salad. An example is the Thai glass noodle salad yam woon sen. In Japan, traditional Japanese noodles such as soba and somen are often served chilled with a dipping sauce