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Freshwater Sections 9.2 & 9.3 Stream Development, Lakes, Wetlands. Headwaters : Region where water first accumulates to supply a stream. Common to be high in the mountains where falling precipitation accumulates in small gullies and forms briskly moving streams. Headwaters. Stream.
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Freshwater Sections 9.2 & 9.3 Stream Development, Lakes, Wetlands
Headwaters:Region where water first accumulates to supply a stream. Common to be high in the mountains where falling precipitation accumulates in small gullies and forms briskly moving streams
Headwaters Stream Headwaters http://www.2steger.de/canada/40_Stein_Valley_Traverse.htm
Stream Headwaters Tundra Lake headwaters of Stein River Lytton, 1983 August 07 (British Columbia, Canada) people.uleth.ca/~holzmann/photos/index.html
Stream Channel:Narrow pathway carved into sediment or rock by the movement of surface water. Stream Bank:Ground bordering each side of a stream that keeps the moving water confined
Stream Banks Stream Banks Stream Channel http://www.littleriverbigfuture.org/images/In%20txt%20pics/Stream_erosion_1.jpg
Immature River:Young river erodes path through sediment or rock forming a V-shaped channel. V-shaped channels have steep sides and sometimes form canyons or gorges.
Inner gorge of the Grand Canyon, located in northwestern Arizona. Carved by the power of the Colorado River, the canyon stretches for 277 miles. http://www.scienceclarified.com/landforms/Basins-to-Dunes/Canyon.html
Stream Valleys • A new stream or river will begin to carve a V-shaped valley through the rock it flows past. • These are also young and immature rivers. • Ex. Grand Canyon • Will continue until it reaches another body of water. • Through time sides of river will become wider and broader.
Mature River:As the river becomes more mature, the V-shaped valley will be eroded away forming a broader, wider river.
This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MariaValeriaBridge.jpg
Meander:A bend or curve in a stream channel caused by moving water Meanders of the Rio Cauto at , Cuba. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Rio-cauto-cuba.JPG
Water in the straight parts of a stream flows at different velocities depending on the location of the water in the channel. • Generally, water in the center is flowing faster at the maximum velocity while water along the bottom and sides flows more slowlybecause it experiences friction as it moves against the land.
The water moving along the outside of a meander curve experiences the greatest rate of flow within the meander. • The water that flows along this outside part of the curve continues to erode away the sides of the streambed, thus making the meander larger. • Along the inside of the meander, the water moves more slowly and deposition is dominant.
Oxbow Lake: A lake formed from a cut-off meander • After some degree of winding it is common for a stream to cut off a meander and once again flow along a straighter path. • The stream then deposits material along the adjoining meander and eventually blocks off its water supply. • The blocked-off meander becomes and oxbow lake, which eventually dries up. http://homepage.ntlworld.com/harry.wickens/borneo/borneo-070.jpg
Alluvial Fan:Sloping depositional features formed at the bases of slopes and composed mostly of sand and gravel. • Streams that lose velocity also lose their ability to carry sediment. • In dry regions mountain streams commonly flow down narrow valleys onto broad, flat, valley floors. As a stream flows from the mountain to the flat valley, the stream’s gradient** may suddenly decrease causing the stream to drop its sediment as a fan-shaped deposit. • **A stream’s gradient is the difference in elevation between two points on the stream divided by the distance along the stream(Essentially the slope of the stream)
Delta:When a stream enters a large body of water (example: an ocean), the stream looses its velocity and the stream’s load is deposited in a triangular shape. • Usually silt and clay particles • As a delta develops, sediments build up and slow the stream water, sometimes even blocking its movement. • Smaller distributary streams then form to carry the stream water through the developing delta.
The Mississippi River Delta http://serc.carleton.edu/images/research_education/katrina/map_of_delta.v2.gif http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=2521
Lake: A depression that collects and holds water. • Lakes accumulate water from streams, runoff, precipitation, and springs. • A small lake is a pond. Reservoir: A man-made structure used for storing water for later use. (Public water use, recreation, flood control, etc.) 1st A sturdy dam is built. 2nd A stream is allowed to flow behind the dam and will eventually fill the area with water.
Falls Lake Reservoir in N. Raleigh Falls Lake; www.saw.usace.army.mil/falls/index.htm
Wetland: A land area that is covered with water for a large part of the year. • Include bogs, marshes, and swamps • They filter and trap pollutants (from runoff), sediment and bacteria to improve water quality • They are home to birds, wildlife, fish, shellfish and crabs. • In NC, more than 70% of the species at list depend on wetlands! http://www.iwla.org/index.php?id=416
http://i197.photobucket.com/albums/aa19/forjerz/Sunday-080.jpghttp://i197.photobucket.com/albums/aa19/forjerz/Sunday-080.jpg http://dcm2.enr.state.nc.us/ncwp/aerial.jpg http://h2o.enr.state.nc.us/ncwetlands/gbheron.JPG http://h2o.enr.state.nc.us/ncwetlands/swsms.html
Estuary: Where a feshwater stream or river enters the ocean • The water in estuaries is a mix of freshwater and salt water called brackish water. • Estuaries are nurseries to the young of many different species including ocean fish species.
Some large estuaries include the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland/Virginia and the Pamlico Sound in North Carolina.
Chapter 10 Groundwater
% of Fresh Water So only about 0.3% of the fresh water is actually “useable.”
3. The source of all water on land is the oceans through the water cycle. 4.Infiltration is when precipitation falls on the land and enters the ground to become groundwater. 5. Porosity is the percent of pore space of a material.
6.The zone of saturation is the depth below the surface where groundwater fills the pores. 7. The water table separates the zone of saturation from the zone of aeration. 8. The zone of aeration is the area where the pores are filled with air. 9. Permeability is the ability of a material to let water pass through. (Impermeable -not able to go through)
10.An aquifer is a permeable underground layer which groundwater easily flows through. Example-the Ogallala Aquifer in the Mid-west
Section 10.3 Groundwater Systems 1.Groundwater typically stays underground for hundreds of years. It moves slowly, steadily through aquifers. 2.A spring is a natural discharge of groundwater. 3.A hot spring is a spring with temperatures higher than the human body. Usually near recent igneous activity 4.A geyser is an explosive hot spring that erupts at regular intervals. Ex. Old Faithful in Yellowstone
Geyser & Springs Old Faithful in Yellowstone
5. A well is a hole dug or drilled into the ground, into an aquifer, to tap a reservoir of water.
Our Limited Water Supply! 1. First, the amount of water on Earth is a finite amount, meaning that there will be no more made. 2. We need to conserve the water that we have, whether city water or well water. 3. List all of the things that water can be used for: 4. Water restrictions are imposed to help limit the amount of water that is used. 5. What restrictions have you heard of? 6. What are other ways that you and your family can conserve water?
Threats to Our Water Supply! 1. Overuse of the water supply can cause the water table to lower and it can “run out”! 2. Pollution is a problem in our water. They can be polluted by sewage, landfills, agricultural or industrial chemicals. Point source pollution is any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack Nonpoint is when we cannot tell the origin. 3. How could these threats affect you and your family?
How does Non-Point Source Pollution affect our waterways? • NPS pollution degrades water quality! The pollutants that enter storm sewers go directly to our lakes, streams, and rivers, NOT to a water treatment plant. • Eroded sediment clogs streambeds, destroying habitat for fish and aquatic insects. • Excess Nitrogen and Phosphorous, from fertilizers and pesticides, cause extreme algae growth, fish kills, and groundwater contamination. • Human sewage and animal waste add harmful bacteria, viruses, and excess nutrients that pollute the water.
Water Resources • Aquifer Depletion