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Groups at Work. Groups. Defined as Two or more people engaged in social interactions for the purposes of achieving some goal Key: Interactions and interrelatedness Task and Social groups Formal and Informal Groups QG: Come up with an example of each combo at your job!. Roles.

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groups
Groups
  • Defined as
    • Two or more people engaged in social interactions for the purposes of achieving some goal
    • Key: Interactions and interrelatedness
  • Task and Social groups
  • Formal and Informal Groups
  • QG: Come up with an example of each combo at your job!
roles
Roles
  • Patterns of behavior adopted because of expectations about functions of particular
    • Role Expectations: members know the requirements and responsibilities of their roles
      • Teacher, Student, TA
      • Barista, Manager, Cashier, Customer
    • Role Differentiation: roles evolve
review of role issues
Review of Role Issues
  • Role Ambiguity
    • Uncertainty over role to play
  • Role Conflict
    • Roles conflict with each other
norms
Norms
  • Rules groups adopt to indicate appropriate and inappropriate behavior for group members.
    • Norms can be formal or informal
    • What are classroom norms?
  • Norms help the group survive
  • Norms also help predict behavior
what if members don t follow norms
What if members don’t follow norms?
  • Members sanction each other to adhere to norms:
    • Inform
    • Scold
    • Punish
    • Ostracize
organizational socialization
Organizational Socialization
  • Process by which new members are integrated into work groups
  • Stage 1: Anticipatory socialization
    • Realistic expecations about the job
  • Stage 2: Accommodation
    • Learn about various roles and own role
  • Stage 3: Role management
    • Transition to “regular” members
  • QG: Example of each from your own experiences of socialization at work
organizational socialization10
Organizational Socialization
  • Success is more likely when
    • Change is voluntary
    • Supervisors and co-workers involved
    • Socialization is structured
      • Training and orientation
    • Newcomer is active part of own socialization
  • Increases OC & career success
  • Decreases stress and turnover
group processes at work
Group Processes at Work
  • Conformity: Adherence to norms
    • Productivity: Rate busters vs. Gold brickers
    • Leaders can more easily resist conformity
    • “Social credits” allow members to resist conformity, too
  • QG: Examples of non-conformity in your work groups
group processes at work12
Group Processes at Work
  • Cohesiveness: amount of attraction between group members
    • Related to satisfaction
    • Not so much to productivity
      • Need job complexity and autonomy
  • Cohesion related to
    • Size, member equality, stability, similarity and outgroup.
group processes at work13
Group Processes at Work
  • Cooperation
    • Members have to work together to complete work goals
    • Reciprocity
    • Task interdependence
    • Social loafing
      • Members don’t pull their load
  • QG: Examples of reciprocity at your work
group processes at work14
Group Processes at Work
  • Competition: members work against each other
    • Can decrease performance
group conflict
Group Conflict
  • A natural part of the group
  • Intraindividual conflict (role conflict)
  • Interindividual conflict
  • Intragroup conflict
  • Intergroup conflict
  • Interorganizational conflict
group conflict research
Group Conflict Research
  • Task and Interpersonal conflict
    • They are positively correlated
  • Task conflict is good
  • Interpersonal conflict is bad
  • Moderated by intragroup trust
    • More intragroup trust, weaker task-interpersonal conflict relationship
    • Can “explain away” others’ behavior
group conflict outcomes
Group Conflict Outcomes
  • Increases motivation
  • Stimulate creativity
  • Improve quality of decisions
  • Decreases cohesiveness
  • Decrease communication
  • QG: Examples of positive outcomes of conflict in your work
managing conflict individuals
Managing conflict: individuals
  • Dominance: win-lose
  • Accommodation: lose-win
  • Compromise: lose-lose
  • Collaboration: win-win
  • Avoidance: wait a bit
managing conflict managers
Managing conflict: Managers
  • Arbitrators
    • Solve organizational resource problems
  • Create superordinate goal
  • Get feedback from subordinates to solve the problem
group decision making
Group Decision Making
  • Two important group outputs
    • Productivity
    • Decision making
group decision making styles
Group Decision Making styles
  • Autocratic
  • Democratic
  • Consensus
group decision making positives
Group Decision Making: Positives
  • Draws from many different perspectives and experiences
  • Gets buy in from the group members
  • Decision (should be) highly analyzed
group decision making negatives
Group Decision Making: Negatives
  • Very Slow
    • Process loss
  • Group Conflict
  • Polarization
    • E-groups
  • Groupthink!
    • Groups make a really bad choice, even when members knew it was a bad choice
    • Challenger, Bay of Pigs, Recent Banking?
groups susceptible to groupthink
Groups susceptible to Groupthink
  • Cohesive Groups
  • Leader Preference
  • Insulation from Experts
groupthink
Groupthink
  • Invulnerability
  • Morality
  • Shared Negative Stereotypes
  • Rationalization
  • Self-Censorship
  • Illusion of Unanimity
  • Pressure to conform
  • Mindguards
fun group exercise
Fun Group Exercise!
  • Groups of 4
  • Decide what to take on your moon disaster
  • Turn in!