Learning Principles and Approaches Chapter 2 presentation by Erika Liebel
Principles and Approaches • Behavioral Psychology Approaches • Cognitive Psychology Principles • Constructivist Psychology Principles • Objectivist – Instructivist Approach
Basic Behavioral Rules Positive Reinforcement – Increases Frequency Remove Negative Reinforcement – Increases Frequency Negative Reinforcement – Decreases Frequency Remove Positive Reinforcement – Decreases Frequency (extinction) Behavioral Psychology Principles
Behavioral Psychologists • Edward Thorndike • Ivan Pavlov • B.F. Skinner
Primarily for adult learners Teaching to specific levels of learner performance Measurement of observable target behaviors Emphasis on: Specifying behavior objectives Analyzing learning tasks Introduction to ISD Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Cognitive Psychology Principles • Places emphasis on the observable constructs of: • Mind • Memory • Attitudes • Motivation • Thinking • Reflection
Cognitive Psychology2 Early Theories • Semantic Networks • Schema Theory Developed by Sir Frederic Bartlett
Cognitive PsychologyConsiderations for Multimedia Design and Evaluation • Perception and Attention • Encoding • Memory • Comprehension • Active Learning • Motivation • Locus of Control • Mental Models • Metacognition • Transfer of Learning • Individual Differences
Cognitive PsychologyPerception & Attention • Information must be easy to receive. • Position of information affects our attention to it and perception of it. • Differences and changes attract and maintain our attention
Format of information in environment Medium of information Interrelationship of different informational elements Mayer’s Multimedia Effect Example: Verbal - English or Spanish Visual or Aural Dual coding theory - leaning is enhanced when complimentary information codes are received simultaneously Cognitive PsychologyEncoding
Principle of Organization Information is remembered better and longer when: information is organized, when organization is imposed on it, when learner is made aware of it. More powerful than the repetition principle Principle of Repetition The more information is practiced and used, the better and longer it is remembered. Use when organization principle is impossible Cognitive PsychologyMemory
More than definition Learner has ability to: Apply knowledge Classify information Evaluate Discuss it Manipulate it Teach it to others Verbal Comprehension – restate in your own words Comprehension of Concepts – distinguish between examples and non-examples Comprehension of Rules and Principles – when to apply, demonstrate correct application Cognitive PsychologyComprehension
Learn by doing – not observing Actions to facilitate learner goals: Human to computer Human to human Human to computer to human Human to paper Human to equipment Design interaction strategies Are actions mental or physical How much mental or physical effort action requires Mental or physical action is automatic or intentional Extent to which actions support tasks Cognitive PsychologyActive Learning
Cognitive PsychologyMotivation • Malone’s Motivation Theory • Keller’s ARCS Motivation Theory Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
Whether control of sequence, content, methodology, an other instructional factors are determined by the learner, the program or a combination of the two. High achieving learners = greater control Low achieving learners = less control Cognitive PsychologyLocus of Control
Cognitive PsychologyMental Models • Representations in working memory that can be run by the learner to understand a system, solve a problem or predict events. • Conceptual models develop good mental models.
Cognitive PsychologyMetacognition • Awareness of one’s cognition • Metamemory – awareness of how well one remembers • Metacomprehension – awareness of how well one understands
Cognitive PsychologyTransfer of Learning • Extent to which performance in one situation is reflected in another • Near transfer – applying info in similar situations • Far transfer - use info in very different situations
Cognitive PsychologyIndividual Differences • Capability to individualize learning style and cognitive style.
Cognitive Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design • Designers must address: • Screen design and presentation strategies • Theories of attention and perception • Incorporate motivational principles
Knowledge is constructed in our heads. Emphasizes: Learning not teaching Actions & thinking of learners, not teachers Active learning Learner choice Negotiation of goals, strategies & evaluation Discovery or guided discovery methods Learner construction of info Personal autonomy Accept & reflect on complexity of the world Situated cognition & anchored instruction Cooperative & collaborative activities Purposeful authentic activities Learner reflection Ownership of learning and activities Authentic – relevant activities Constructivist Psychology Principles
Constructivist PsychologyLearning vs. Teaching • Downplay teacher presentation • Stress learner activity
Learner explores, experiments, researches, questions & seeks answers Guided or structured discovery environments Teachers & learners as partners in the research experience Constructivist PsychologyDiscovery Learning
Situated Learning Learning always occurs in some context Context significantly affects learning Anchored Instruction Learning environment should be embedded in real world context with real imagery, goals, problems and activities Constructivist PsychologySituated Learning & Anchored Instruction
Cooperative Learning Learners help each other Different projects Different goals Collaborative Learning Learners work on a shared project Same goals Constructivist PsychologyCooperative & Collaborative Learning
Constructivist PsychologyAutonomy, Choice & Negotiation • Learners given choices in their activities • Learners are autonomous in their actions • Learners & instructors negotiate goals and activities
Constructivist PsychologyReflection & Strategic Thinking • Environment should foster learning and learning how to learn
Constructivist PsychologyReflecting on the Complexity of the World • Knowledge and skills taught should be: • Transferable to other environments • Relevant to the learner • Real world situations
Traditional methods – Tutorial, drills Hypermedia, simulations, virtual reality, open-ended learning environments Explore, apply their own learning style & use software as a resource Poor for developing life long learners More benefit to learner Learner not the teacher Constructivist Influence on Interactive Multimedia Design
Not appropriate for multimedia design ISD Learner responses Does not include Learner Satisfaction Self worth Creativity Social Values Attention only to observable learner behavior Non-motivating & non-transferable Reactive not proactive Criticisms of Behaviorism
Criticisms of Cognitivism • Strayed too far from active learning • Educational software has too much reading, watching & listening • Undervalue the principles of reinforcement
Criticisms of Objectivism or Instructivism • Does not promote collaboration, self autonomy, active learning or transfer of information • Does support the “Banking Method” (Freire, 1970).
Criticisms of Constructivism • They feel that tutorial & drill activities are never appropriate • Constructivist methods work better for learners with well developed metacognitive skills • Good for individual activities – not whole school • Advocates replacing current system through revolution not evolution
Constructivists Hannafin Bransford Reeves Bereiter Behaviorists Dick Rieber Reigeluth Jacobson & Spiro People to Know
Questions for Discussion • What are the implications for the use of computers/multimedia in each theory, Behaviorism, Cognitivism & Constructivism? • Which psychological principles (behaviorist, cognitivist or constructivist) do you use in your classrooms and why?
References • Alessi, S.M. & Trollip, S.R. (2001). Learning principles and approaches. In Multimedia for learning; methods and development (pp. 16-47). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. • Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (p. 53). New York: Continuum.