Resisting British Control The SOUTH african war1899 – 1902 Introduction...
The SOUTH african war1899 – 1902 “The British public expected the war against the Boers to be over by Christmas. It proved to be the longest (two and three-quarter years), the most expensive (over 200 million Pounds), the bloodiest (at least 22 000 British, 25 000 Boer and 12 000 African lives) and the most humiliating war for Britain between 1815 and 1914” Thomas Pakenham
Who were involved? Boermen, women and children, mainly farmers who lived in the Transvaal (SAR) and the Orange Free State and spoke Afrikaans or Dutch Britishsoldiers who came from Britain and its colonies, including the Cape and Natal Africanpeople from all over South Africa
Factors that led to the war Revenge: Remember Majuba! Control of gold mining interests The Jameson Raid
Revenge: Remember majuba! • 1877: British annexed Orange Free State & Transvaal • Boers were angry – went to war in 1890 • Defeated British at the Battle of Majuba (27 February 1881) • First Vryheidsoorlog (War of Liberation) • The British wanted revenge: they were humiliated
Control of gold mining interests • Gold discovered in 1886 on the Witwatersrand (in Transvaal) • Made Transvaal wealthy • Mostly British immigrants seeking fortune (Called the Uitlanders) • Not happy with having little political power • Demanded to have a voice in the affairs of the Transvaal
The Jameson Raid • Cecil John Rhodes wanted to see all of South Africa united under British control • Did not like the fact that the Boer republics had access to the rest of the world through the Delagoa Bay harbour • Jan 1896: plans to attack Johannesburg and take over Transvaal with help from Uitlanders • Terrible failure: Rhodes asked for reinforcements that never came • Boers saw the raid as declaration of war though war only came in 1899
Activity • Read p. 130 – 133 • Do Activity 6 in pairs (write answers on a piece of paper) (p. 133) • Report back