CM 1190. Examining and Evaluating Evidence Supporting Evidence. Unit 4.1 Evaluating Academic texts and Identifying Supporting Evidence. Introduction to Unit 4. In Unit 4 we will discuss: Evaluating Academic texts and identifying Supporting Evidence Following Writing Patterns
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Evaluating Academic texts and Identifying Supporting Evidence
In Unit 4 we will discuss:
The source of a reading
is important when
deciding if the
information contained in
the reading is reliable or
A report on the study of different cooking oils made this statement “When choosing fats, olive oil is the healthiest choice”.
One of the organizations above paid for the study. How does that change your feeling about the statement?
supports the main idea
- like the legs of a table
or the columns of a
Evidence provides the basis by which we
know something to be true.
Details are individual facts that support the
Sometimes details are grouped into small
Major details are those that unite all the other
Minor details support the major detail.
Identify the supporting evidence in the reading below.
Social health insurance is where a nation's entire population is eligible for health care coverage and this coverage and the services provided are regulated. Additionally in almost every country, state or municipality with a government health care system a parallel private, and usually for-profit, system is allowed to operate. This is sometimes referred to as two-tier health care. For example the United States currently operates under a mixed market health care system. Government sources account for 45% of U.S. health care expenditures.
(Continue to next slide)
Private sources account for the remainder of costs, with 38% of people receiving health coverage through their employers and 17% arising from other private payment such as private insurance and out-of-pocket co-pays. Health system reform in the United States usually focuses around three suggested systems, with proposals currently underway to integrate these systems in various ways to provide a number of health care options. First is single-payer, a term meant to describe a single agency managing a single system. Second are employer or individual insurance mandates. Finally, there is consumer-driven health, in which systems, consumers, and patients have more control of how they access care.
(Continue to next slide)
Over the past thirty years, most of the nation's health care has moved from the second model operating with not-for-profit institutions to the third model operating with for-profit institutions; the greater problems with this approach have been the gradual deregulation of Health Maintenance Operators (HMOs) resulting in fewer of the promised choices for consumers, and the steady increase in consumer cost that has marginalized consumers and burdened states with excessive urgent health care costs that are avoided when consumers have adequate access to preventive health care.
Source: Adapted from “Health Care” (2010) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_care
A writing pattern is the way a writer uses
A pattern is something that repeats, which
causes it to be predictable.
A writing pattern is a way of organizing and
repeating elements within a piece of writing
to help make the form and content
Readers read many different texts that follow
different patterns. After time, readers
become able to predicthow different texts
will be organized.
Health Science students are primarily interested in communicating:
How things work. Process pattern
How things are similar or different from one another.
Comparison and Contrast pattern
How things impact or affect one another.
Cause and Effect pattern
Things come in a specific order for an important reason.
Read the following text. Why has it been ordered in this way? What clues help guide your reading?
Operation of a Blood Glucose Meter
First wash your hands and dry them well before doing the test.
Next use an alcohol pad to clean the area that you're going to prick. With many glucose meters, you get a drop of blood from your fingertip. After that, prick yourself (usually finger) with a sterile lancet to get a drop of blood. Then place the drop of blood on the test strip. Finally, follow the instructions for inserting the test strip into the glucose meter. The meter will give you a number for your blood sugar level.
Common process pattern clues include:
Things are presented in terms of similarities, differences or both.
Read the selection below. What is being compared or contrasted? How do you know?
Halon differs from all other extinguishing agents in the way it puts out fire. Its essential extinguishing ability lies in its capacity to chemically react with the oxygen and put out the fire immediately, without leaving the kind of mess and damage that can be caused to electrical equipment by water, foam or dry powder. Like carbon dioxide, halon is unsuitable for use in open areas. If you spray it into the open air, it disperses almost as soon as it is sprayed, but it is highly effective in closed areas. Carbon dioxide works by displacing all of the oxygen in the compartment, suffocating the fire. Halon, on the other hand, works by chemically interrupting the burning process, which means that it requires a fraction of the amount.
Morgan & Regan (2008)
Common comparison and contrast pattern
Things are discussed in terms of conditions, reasons, or results.
Read the following text. What is the cause? What is the effect? How do you know?
The reason for the increase in asthma in children is not known, but it may be due to more widespread use of vaccines and antibiotics as well asto the fact that children are spending more time indoors, or to both. Increased use of vaccines and antibiotics may have shifted the activity of a special subgroup of white blood cells (called lymphocytes) in the body from fighting infection to releasing chemical substances that promote the development of allergies. Alternatively, because children are spending more time indoors and living in better-insulated homes than they were in the past, the exposure to potentially allergic substances is increased. There are few data to support either theory.
Adapted from http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec04/ch044/ch044a.html
Common cause and effect pattern clues
Evidenceincludes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion about something.
Evidence is gathered in various ways,
This is where one uses
conjecture or opinion to
support a concept. This
is not evidence based in
This is where you prove
something or research
by directly observing or
evidence IS based in
Read the following extract and decide is this kind of
research based on theory or with empirical evidence.
Almost 100 students took experiments in which they drove virtual
cars. While driving they had to provide answers about the layout of
buildings on their campus, or check that statements made by
others about relative positions of building were correct. The
researchers monitored various aspects of their driving performance
while they performed these tasks.
Source: Adapted from J. Billingsley. (2005). “Listen Up: Any Cell Phone Use While Driving Is Risky”. Health Day News.
Look at the following extract
The evidence in the extract above is presented with a foot note. The
number represents a footnote at the bottom of the page or sometimes
at the end of an article where you can find proof of the facts being
“A positive attitude is a very important aspect of aging. Many older people have the
same negative stereotypes about aging that young people do”.
Is based on research that was done by J.W. Rowe and
R.L. Kahn in their book Successful Aging. Which was
published in 1998 in New York by Dell Publishing.
Evidence can be presented in the form of a graph
Evidence that is supported with proof of a study or
research is empirical and based in findings.
When presented, this is usually presented with a
footnote, reference or indication of the study’s support.
Evidence that is opinion based or in the theory stage
and has no basis in fact is not supported. This would
therefore have no reference points.
Which graph is more credible? Why?
Note: All graphics retrieved from Google Images