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Warm-up 10/31/11. Teach the Teacher: Tell me everything you know about DNA. Review: Name as many female and male reproductive parts as you can. Learning Target: What makes up DNA? What does DNA do at the cellular level?. DNA . CRACKING THE CODE OF LIFE . DNA 101 .

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warm up 10 31 11
Warm-up 10/31/11
  • Teach the Teacher: Tell me everything you know about DNA.
  • Review: Name as many female and male reproductive parts as you can.
  • Learning Target: What makes up DNA? What does DNA do at the cellular level?
slide2

DNA

CRACKING THE CODE OF LIFE

dna 101
DNA 101
  • DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid
    • What is a nucleic acid (one of four..)___________
  • 5 cm long nucleic acid molecule that contains hereditary material—tells cell its function and structure
functions
Functions
  • DNA controls all the chemical changes which take place in cells
    • The kind of cell which is formed, (muscle, blood, nerve etc
    • The kind of organism which is produced (buttercup, giraffe, herring, human etc)
functions1
Functions
  • DNA does it’s dirty work by making proteins…
  • PROTEINS ARE LIKE TEXT MESSAGES AND BRICKS..
  • communicate and build things
made of
Made Of

large molecule made up of a long chain of sub-units

  • The sub-units are called nucleotides
    • Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose
    • a phosphate group -PO4
    • and an organic base
ribose and deoxyribose
Ribose and Deoxyribose
  • Ribose is a sugar, like glucose, but with only five carbon atoms in its molecule
  • Deoxyribose is almost the same but lacks one oxygen atom
  • Both molecules may be represented by the symbol
the bases

5

The bases

Adenine

(A)

Thymine

(T)

Cytosine

(C)

(G)

Guanine

The most common organic bases are

nucleotides

6

Nucleotides

PO4

adenine

deoxyribose

The deoxyribose,

the phosphate

and one of the bases

Combine to form a nucleotide

bonding 1

10

Bonding 1

Adenine

Thymine

Guanine

Cytosine

The bases always pair up in the same way

Adenine forms a bond with Thymine

and Cytosine bonds with Guanine

genetic code 1

19

Genetic code 1
  • The sequence of bases in DNA forms the
  • Genetic Code
  • The different amino acids and the order in which they are joined up determines the sort of protein being produced
  • A group of three bases (a triplet) controls the production of a particular amino acid in the cytoplasm of the cell
warm up 11 3 11
Warm-UP 11/3/11
  • Teach the Teacher: What is one thing you want to learn before you die (speak another language, learn how to fix a car, etc.)?
  • Review: Tell me as much as you can about DNA….
  • Learning Targets: What is replication? How do genes code for traits?
gallery walk
Gallery Walk
  • 1. What are characteristics of a good, eye-catching poster?
  • 2. Give me 4 facts from subjects other then the ones you did….
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4.
genetic code 2
Genetic code 2

Ser-Cyst-Val-Gly-Ser-Cyst Ala

Val

Val-Cyst-Ser-Ala-Ser-Cyst-Gly

Val- Cyst-Ala-Ala-Ser-Gly

20

This is a small, imaginary protein molecule showing

how a sequence of 5 different amino acids could determine the shape and identity of the molecule

Each amino acid (Serine, Cysteine, Valine, Glycine and

Alanine) is coded for by a particular triplet of bases

triplet code
Triplet code

22

This is known as the triplet code

Each triplet codes for a specific amino acid

CGA - CAA - CCA - CCA - GCT - GGG - GAG - CCA -

Ala

Val

Gly

Gly

Arg

Pro

Leu

Gly

The amino acids are joined together in the correct

sequence to make part of a protein

Ala

Val

Gly

Gly

Arg

Pro

Leu

Gly

enzymes
Enzymes
  • So DNA exerts its control through the enzymes
  • The DNA controls which enzymes are made and the enzymes determine what reactions take place
  • The proteins build the cell structures
genes
Genes
  • A sequence of triplets in the DNA molecule may code for a complete amino acid
  • Such a sequence forms a gene
  • There may be a thousand or more bases in one gene
replication
Replication
  • Before a cell divides, the DNA strands unwind
  • and separate
  • Each strand makes a new partner by adding the appropriate nucleotides
  • The result is that there are now two double-stranded DNA molecules in the nucleus
  • So that when the cell divides, each nucleus contains identical DNA
  • This process is called replication
genetic code
Genetic Code
  • Each amino acid is specified by a particular combination of 3 nucleotides, called codons
  • Different species can use one codon over another for the same amino acid
warm up 11 7
Warm-UP 11/7
  • Teach the Teacher: If you had to babysit a 5 year old what would be the coolest thing to do?
  • Review: What are the four nitrogen bases that make up DNA?
  • Learning Target: What are the “leggo” pieces of DNA? What are current issues regarding DNA?
flash card
Flash Card
  • On the front:
  • Nucleotide
  • On the back:
  • The “lego” of DNA: sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen bases
flash card1
Flash Card
  • On the front:
  • Nitrogen bases
  • On the back:
  • Adenine
  • Thymine
  • Cytosine
  • Guanine
  • Makes genetic code
flash card2
Flash Card
  • On the front:
  • Amino Acid
  • On the back:
  • Building block of proteins, coded by a triplet of nitrogen bases
flash card3
Flash Card
  • On the front:
  • Replication
  • On the back:
  • Process by which DNA is doubled before cell division
warm up 11 9 11
Warm-up 11/9/11
  • Teach the Teacher: What is one of the most important things your grandparents, guardians, auntie, uncle, or other trusted adult has taught you?
  • Review: List as many flash card words as you can think of about DNA (in fact you should look at the flashcards…I give you permission)
  • Learning Targets: Learn the process for DNA analysis in crimes scenes. Investigate issues surrounding DNA determining blood quantum.
high country news article
High Country News Article
  • 1.What are the positive and negatives of using blood quantum? Be balanced.
  • 2. What do you think?
warm up 11 10 11
Warm-UP 11/10/11
  • Teach the Teacher: What would be (or is) the best thing about being a twin?
  • Review: What is a way that our bodies must maintain homeostasis?
  • Learning Targets: DNA characteristics and current issues. What is human cloning?
proteins do what in the cell
Proteins do what in the cell?
  • Send messages and build stuff like muscle and cells
  • Make bones
amino acids
Amino acids
  • Make up proteins
  • Make up nucleotide
three nitrogen bases make up a
three nitrogen bases make up a
  • Coden or triplet
  • Enzymes
this is the lego of dna
This is the lego of DNA
  • Nucleotide
  • Enzyme
this is a macromolecule
This is a macromolecule
  • Nucleic acid
  • Coden
cytosine will bond with
Cytosine will bond with
  • Thymine
  • Guanine
thymine will bond with
Thymine will bond with
  • adenine
  • cytosine
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