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Theory of Absolutism

Theory of Absolutism

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Theory of Absolutism

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  1. Theory of Absolutism • Rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs, kings or queens who held all the power within their boundaries • Their goal was to control every aspect of society • They believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth

  2. Absolutism in Spain Chapter 21 Section 1

  3. Philip II • The son of Charles V inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies from his father • Very hard working and deeply religious (Catholic) • He was deeply suspicious and trusted no one • “His smile and his dagger were very close.” –Court Historian

  4. Philip Controls Portugal • More than anything, Phillip was very aggressive • In 1580, Philip seized Portugal’s throne after the King, his uncle, died without an heir • With Portugal came its strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies

  5. Philip’s Empire Provides Wealth • By 1600, American mines had provided him with an estimated 339,000 pounds of gold • From 1550 to 1650 nearly 16,000 tons of silver were unloaded from Spanish ships • The King claimed between a fourth and a fifth of every shipload as his royal share • Spain was able to support an army of over 50,000 men

  6. Religious War in Europe • Philip believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe • In 1571, Philip sent a fleet of 200 Spanish and Venetian ships into battle • They defeated a large Ottoman Army near Lepanto (Greece)

  7. Religious War in Europe • In 1588, Philip launched the Spanish Armada in attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Queen Elizabeth I • However, the Spanish Armada was defeated by the English Monarch

  8. English Defeat Spanish Armada

  9. Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature Spain’s great wealth during this time helped spark the Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature…

  10. El Greco “The Greek” • Real name was DomenikosTheotokopoulos • He chose brilliant sometimes clashing colors in his paintings • He also distorted the human figure and expressed emotion symbolically

  11. El Greco’s Holy Trinity • His pieces showed the deep Catholic faith of Spain (painted saints and martyrs)

  12. Diego Velazquez • Paintings reflected the pride of Spanish monarchy • He was the court painter for Philip IV of Spain • He is best known for his portraits of the royal family and scenes of court life

  13. Diego Velazquez’s Las Meninas • Depicts King Philip IV’s daughter and her attendants

  14. Miguel de Cervantes • Published Don Quixote in 1605 • This publication is often called the birth of the modern European novel • This novel is about a poor Spanish noble boy, Don Quixote, who reads too many books about heroic knights

  15. Excerpt from Don Quixote “He rushed with [his horse’s] utmost speed upon the first windmill he could come at, and, running, his lance into the sail, the wind whirled about with such swiftness, that the rapidity of the motion presently broke the lance into shivers, and hurled away both knight and horse along with it, till down he fell, rolling a good way of in the field.”

  16. Don Quixote • Some antics believe he was mocking chivalry, the knightly code of the middle ages • Some antics believe this novel is about an idealistic person, frustrated with the materialistic world he is living in, longing for the romantic past

  17. Empire Weakens • Wealth in Spain also contributed to the cause of some long-term economic problems • Inflation- decline in the value of money, accompanied by the rise in the prices of goods and services • Inflation in Spain had two main causes: • Spain’s population had been growing. More demand = Higher Prices • As silver flooded the market, its value dropped. More silver needed to buy things

  18. Other Causes of Weakening Empire: • Spain expelled Jews and Moors (Muslims) around 1500; therefore, Spain lost many valuable artisans and businessmen • Spain’s nobles did not have to pay taxes; therefore, tax burden fell upon the lower classes • Spain’s population bought its needs from other countries due to higher prices in Spain set up by guilds • To finance its wars, Spain borrowed from German and Italian bankers so much of the silver and gold were sent overseas to pay off debts

  19. Dutch Break Away from Spanish Control • In 1579, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, which were Protestant, united and declared independence from Spain (The United Provinces of the Netherlands) • The ten southern provinces (present day Belgium) were Catholic and remained under Spanish control

  20. 1658 Map of Republic of Seven United Netherlands

  21. The Dutch Prosper • The United Provinces were not a kingdom but a republic (each province had an elected governor) • During the 1600’s the Netherlands thrived like Italy had during the 1400’s (Renaissance) • Rembrandt and Jan Vermeer

  22. The Dutch Prosper • The stability in Dutch government allowed them to focus on economic growth • The Dutch East India Company dominated the Asian and Indian Ocean trade

  23. Absolutism in France Chapter 21 Section 2

  24. Religious Tension in France Between 1562 and 1598 Huguenots (Protestants) and Catholics fought eight religious wars in France...

  25. Henry IV • In 1589, Prince Henry IV became the first king of the Bourbon Dynasty in France • He was a Protestant but converted to Catholicism • He declared, “Paris is well worth a mass.”

  26. Edict of Nantes • Edict of Nantes- In 1598 he declared that the Huguenots (Protestants) could live in peace in France and worship as they wished • Henry was devoted to rebuilding France and its prosperity

  27. Louis XIII • Louis XIII, Henry’s son, ruled after his death • He was a weak King but in 1624 he appointed a strong minister, Cardinal Richelieu • Cardinal Richelieu was in effect the ruler of France

  28. Cardinal Richelieu • He moved against the Huguenots -allowed Protestantism -did not allow walls to be built in their cities 2. He weakened the power of the nobles

  29. Cardinal Richelieu • He wanted to make France the most powerful state in Europe • He believed the greatest obstacle was the Hapsburg rulers whose lands surrounded France (Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire)

  30. Hapsburg Lands The Hapsburgs lands were in areas that surrounded France…

  31. Cardinal Mazarin • Louis XIV came to power in 1643 as a young boy • Cardinal Mazarin controlled France until his death in 1661 when Louis was 22 • Mazarin had increased taxes and strengthened the government like Richelieu had done

  32. Louis XIV • At times, the nobles threatened the young kings life • Louis never forgot this fear for his life and was determined to become so strong that they could not threaten him again

  33. Louis XIV • Continued to weaken power of the nobles • Thus increased power of central government • He appointed intendants who collected taxes and administered justice • He made sure these people communicated regularly with him

  34. Louis XIV Louis XIV was known as the Sun King and made his power and prestige known throughout France. How did he display his power and prestige? (“The Sun Kings Grand Style” Page 599)

  35. Palace at Versailles

  36. Jean Baptiste Colbert • Louis wanted to help France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance • He appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert as his minister of finance

  37. We must always take heed that we buy no more from strangers than we sell them, for so should we impoverish ourselves and enrich them.“ -Queen Elizabeth (England)

  38. France: Self Sufficient • Colbert believed in the theory of mercantilism • Making France self-sufficient and keeping wealth in the country • Government funds and tax benefits were given to French companies • High tariffs were placed on goods from other countries

  39. French Colonization • Colbert also recognized the importance of colonies • Provided raw materials and a market for manufactured goods • The French government encouraged people to migrate to France’s colony in Canada

  40. Huguenot’s Lose Religious Freedoms • After Colbert’s death in 1685, Louis canceled the Edict of Nantes which protected religious freedom of Huguenots • In response, Huguenot artisans and businessmen fled the country robbing France of many skilled workers

  41. In 1660, France had about 20 million people (Four times England and Ten times Dutch Republic) The French Monarch wanted to continue to expand throughout Europe…

  42. France Invades Spanish Netherlands • In 1667, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands • The Dutch opened up its dikes • The war ended in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen • France gained several towns and a region called Franche-Comte

  43. European-Wide Alliance vs. France • Louis decided to fight additional wars to gain lands • By the 1680’s a European-wide alliance had formed to stop France • By banding together, these weaker, smaller countries could match France’s strength

  44. French Bourbons Control Spain • In 1700, Charles II, King of Spain, died • He had promised his throne to Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip of Anjou • The two greatest powers in Europe, who were enemies for so long, were now both ruled by the French Bourbons

  45. War of Spanish Succession • Countries throughout Europe were not happy with this union (France and Spain) and in 1701 came together • This struggle became known as the War of the Spanish Succession

  46. Treaty of Utrecht • 1714-The Treaty of Utrecht was signed • Allowed Philipto remain King of Spain as long as the two thrones were not united

  47. Treaty of Utrecht • Received the Strait of Gibraltar • British company was granted permission by Spain to send slaves to Spain’s American colonies • France gave Britain the colonies of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as well as abandoned claims to the Hudson Bay region