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Kinesiology Laboratory 8. Posture and Gait Analysis. Lateral Plumb Line. Stand so that the line is slightly anterior to lateral malleoli. Anterior/Posterior Plumb Line. *Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet. Normal Vertical Plumb Line Analysis. *. * *.

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Kinesiology laboratory 8

Kinesiology Laboratory 8

Posture and Gait Analysis

Lateral plumb line
Lateral Plumb Line

  • Stand so that the line is slightly anterior to lateral malleoli

Anterior posterior plumb line
Anterior/Posterior Plumb Line

*Plumb line should be equidistant from both feet

Normal vertical plumb line analysis
Normal Vertical Plumb Line Analysis




* Plumb line should be slightly posterior to the center of the hip joint and only slightly anterior to the knee and ankle joint.

Normal spinal curvature
Normal Spinal Curvature

Posterior concave curves are termed Lordosis

Posterior convex curves are termed Kyphosis

Flattening or increases in curvature beyond baseline are postural abnormalities that lead to increase stress on joints and surrounding structures.

Lateral deviations
Lateral Deviations


Genu recurvatum-

Plumb line will fall anterior to knee cap

Posterior anterior deviations
Posterior/Anterior Deviations




Anterior posterior deviations
Anterior/Posterior Deviations




Posterior anterior deviations1
Posterior/Anterior Deviations


Different Iliac Crest heights

Lateral gluteal fold deviations


Lateral deviations (Scoliosis)




Different Heights

Changes in posture high heels
Changes in Posture: High Heels

Shortened Achilles Tendon due to increased plantar flexion

Center of gravity shifted forward

Compensation causes

Increased lumbar lordosis

Stress on knees

Heel strike
Heel Strike

Ankle: Neutral (isometric contraction of dorsiflexors)

Knee: Slight Flexion (eccentric of knee extensors)

Hip: 30 degrees Flexion (isometric of hip extensors)

Trunk: Rotated to Opposite Side (isometric of erector spinae group)

Body weight shifts to stance leg

Flat foot
Flat Foot

Ankle: 5-10 degrees of Plantar Flexion (eccentric dorsiflexors)

Knee: 15 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quadriceps)

Hip: Moving into Extension (isometric extensors)

Body weight continues to shift stance foot

Mid stance

Ankle: Dorsiflexion (eccentric plantarflexors)

Knee: Extension (no contraction)

Hip: Extension (concentric extensors and abductors)

Trunk: Neutral

Single limb support occurs

Highest level of horizontal displacement of center of gravity and vertical displacement of center of gravity

Heel off
Heel Off

Ankle: initially dorsiflexion, moving into plantar flexion (for push off) (concentric plantar flexors)

Knee: extension (eccentric quads)

Hip: Hyperextension (isometric extensors, eccentric hip flexors)

Trunk: Rotation to same side

Toe off
Toe Off

Toes: Hyperextension

Ankle: Plantar flexion appox. 10-15 degrees (concentric plantar flexors)

Knee: Flexion to 30 degrees (eccentric quads)

Hip: Moving into Flexion (concentric hip flexors)


Ankle: Moves into dorsiflexion (concentric dorsiflexors)

Knee: Flexion (eccentric quads)

Hip: (concentric flexors)

Mid swing
Mid Swing

Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexion)

Knee: 60 degrees of Flexion (eccentric quads)

Hip: 25 degrees of Flexion (concentric hip flexors)


Ankle: Neutral (isometric dorsiflexors)

Knee: Full Extension (eccentric hamstrings)

Hip: Flexion (eccentric extensors)

Gait analysis
Gait Analysis

Step length is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of the opposite foot. In normal gait, right and left step lengths are similar.

Stride length is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Right and left stride lengths are normally equal.

Cadence or walking rate is calculated in steps per minute.

Walking base is the sum of the perpendicular distances from the points of initial contact of the right and left feet to the line of forward progression.

Foot angle or toe out describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the midpoints of the calcaneus and the second metatarsal head.

Trendelenburg sign vs trendelenburg gait
Trendelenburg Sign Vs Trendelenburg Gait

In two weeks
In Two Weeks

  • Final Lab Practical

    • Principles

      • Active and Passive Insufficiency

      • Length-Tension

      • Velocity Tension

      • Force Couples

      • Levers

    • Activity Analysis

      • Squat

      • Baseball Swing (Leading Arm)

      • Push up

      • Sit up

      • Bench Press

      • Military Press

    • Exercise Prescription

      • Lower Extremities