Poetry Vocabulary, Types and Examples
Language in Poetry • Two Types: • Figurative – language used to create a special effect in feeling; characterized by figures of speech or language that compares, exaggerates, or words that mean something other than its literal meaning. • Literal – The exact primary meaning of a word or words.
DICTION • Diction – an author’s choice of words based on their correctness, clarity (clear), or effectiveness. • Some words are purposely chosen to represent ideas, not to come right out and say them.
IMAGERY • Imagery – words or phrases a writer selects to create a certain picture in the mind; based on sensory detail. • Imagery uses descriptive words to evoke the five senses.
METER AND RHYTHM • Meter and rhythm describe patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. • The meter and rhythm of a poem creates a beat.
VERSE AND REFRAIN • Verse – metric line of poetry names according to the kind and number of feet composing it. • Refrain – repetition of a line or phrase of a poem at regular intervals, especially at the end of a stanza (chorus).
STANZA • Stanza – a division of poetry named for the number of lines it contains. • When you see a space between lines in a poem, that means a new stanza is beginning.
RHYME • Rhyme – similarity or likeness of sound existing between two words. • T op = St op • C at= M at
END RHYME • End Rhyme – rhyming words that appear at the ends of two or more lines of poetry. • I do not like green eggs and ham. • I do not like them Sam I am.
INTERNAL RHYME • Internal Rhyme – occurs when rhyming words appear in the same line of poetry. • The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain.
RHYME SCHEME • Rhyme Scheme – the pattern or sequence in which rhyme sounds occur in a stanza or poem. • To label a rhyme scheme, a similar letter is assigned to each pair of rhyming sounds in a stanza.
LABELING RHYME SCHEME • Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? A Though are more lovely and temperate: B Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, A And summer’s lease hath all to short a date. B Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines C And often is his gold complexion dimmed; D And every fair from fair sometimes declines C By chance or nature changing course untrimmed. D • The rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD
ALLITERATION • Alliteration – repetition of initial consonant sounds in words. • She sells sea shells down by the seashore.
ASSONANCE • Assonance – repetition of vowel sounds without the repetition of consonant sounds. • How now brown cow.
SIMILE • Simile – comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as.” • He acts like an animal when he eats!
METAPHOR • Metaphor – comparison of two unlike things NOT using “like” or “as.” • He is an animal when he eats!
PERSONIFICATION • Personification – giving human qualities to non-human objects. • The wind whispered through the trees. • The sun smiled down on the earth. • The flag waved at us. • The statue stared at us.
ONOMATOPOEIA • Onomatopoeia – the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning.
HYPERBOLE • Hyperbole – The use of exaggeration for a heightened effect.
ALLUSION • Allusion – an indirect reference to art, literature, history, etc. that the author expects the reader to recognize.
SYMBOLISM/SYMBOL • Symbolism – the use of a person, place, or thing or an event used to represent something else. Symbol – the use of a concrete object to represent something abstract.
PARADOX • Paradox – an apparent contradiction which is somehow true.
OXYMORON • Oxymoron – a paradox where two successive words (side by side) seemingly contradict each other.
METONYMY • Metonymy – the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself. • Saying “The White House decided..” to indicate what the President did.
SAMPLE CINQUAIN • CINQUAIN (“sin-kane) – five line poem with definite requirements for each line. • Line 1: One word – what the poem is about (noun). • Line 2: Two words – words that describe the word in line 1 (adjectives). • Line 3: Three words – actions associated with the word in line 1; what it does (verbs in the same form) • Line 4: Four Words – Words that express thought or feeling about the word in line 1; words that make a statement about the word in line 1 (NOT A COMPLETE SENTENCE) • Line 5: One word – Another word for the word in line 1; or a word that tells how you feel about the word in line 1 (noun)
SAMPLE CINQUAIN Mice Little, quiet Running, crawling, jumping Eat holes in furniture Demons
DIAMANTE (DIAMOND) • Diamante – seven-line poem with definite requirements. • Line 1: One word (noun that has an opposite) • Line 2: Two words (two adjectives describing the noun) • Line 3: Three words (three participles – words ending in –ing or –ed) • Line 4: Four words (two nouns related to the word in line 1 and two nouns that are opposite of the first two) • Line 5: Three words (three participles indicating change or development of the subject ending in –ing or –ed) • Line 6: Two words (two adjectives carrying on the idea of change or development) • Line 7: One word (noun that is opposite of line 1)
SAMPLE DIAMANTE Fire Red, hot Burning, scalding, blistering Heat, flames – frost, freezer Cooling, soothing, refreshing Cold, chilly Ice • Notice the diamond shape of the poem.
BALLAD • Ballad-Simple narrative poem. Presents a single dramatic episode. • Story told through action and dialogue. • Deals with subjects such as adventure, love, jealousy, heroism, disaster, or revenge. • Four-line stanzas. Usually meant to be sung. • Usually ABCB rhyme scheme. • Usually has a refrain – ending of a stanza or separate stanza that is repeated.
HAIKU • Haiku – traditional form of Japanese poetry composed of three lines. Haiku is used to capture a moment, express a feeling, and/or celebrate some phase or element of nature. • 1 Line – 5 syllables • 2 Line – 7 syllables • 3 Line – 5 syllables • These lines can be in any order.
SAMPLE HAIKU Aroma so sweet, Whoppers sitting on a plate, The thrill of eating.