Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions

play fullscreen
1 / 65
Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions
239 Views
Download Presentation
avongara
Download Presentation

Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Community Ecology -- Interspecific Interactions

  2. Interspecific Interactions

  3. A knife’s edge… Commensalism

  4. Interspecific Interactions

  5. Mutualism

  6. Mutualism

  7. Mutualism

  8. Interspecific Interactions

  9. + / - = more than just predation • Species #1 / Species #2 = Interaction • + / 0 = Commensalism • + / + = Mutualism • + / – = Parasitism (particularly w/o host death) • + / – = Herbivory (eating of parts of plant) • + / – – = Parasitoidism (host killed by larvae) • + / – – = Predation (prey killed by predator)

  10. Secondary compounds (plants) • Nutritional deficiencies (plants) • Mechanical defenses (plants) • Production of poisons (animals) • Mechanical defenses (animals) • Running away & hiding (animals) • Fighting back (mostly animals) • Cryptic coloration (mostly animals) • Batesian mimicry (animals) • Müllerian mimicry (animals) • Immune systems (animals) Defense against + / – or + / ––

  11. Nutrient Deficiencies (plants)

  12. Mechanical Deficiencies (plants)

  13. Production of Poisons

  14. Mechanical Defenses (animals)

  15. Running Away and Hiding

  16. Fighting Back

  17. Cryptic Coloration

  18. Cryptic Coloration

  19. Coevolution represents the evolutionary modification of organisms in response to other organisms, particularly when two organisms are mutually modified in response to modifications displayed by the other. • "Despite the problems in assessing cause and effect in the evolution of complex ecological relationships, biologists agree that the adaptation of organisms to other species in a community is a fundamental characteristic of life. Put another way, interactions of species in ecological time often translate into adaptations over evolutionary time.“ • Strictly, coevolutionary relations may be limited to interactions between two species rather than modifications that affect a suite of species; for example, an ability to run faster in order to escape predators is not quite the same thing as an ability to run faster in order to escape one predator species (which, if it wants a meal, would then be exposed to selection to run even faster). • This narrowing limits the applicability of the idea of coevolution since it creates a criteria that is stricter then simply more effectively interacting with other species in terms of survival and reproduction. Coevolution

  20. Parasite-Host Coevolution

  21. Aposematic (warning) Coloration

  22. Aposematic (warning) Coloration

  23. Batesian Mimicry

  24. Müllerian Mimicry

  25. Interspecific Interactions

  26. Interference Competition • Fighting back • Running away • Avoidance • Losing Exploitative Competition • Competitive exclusion • Resource partitioning • Character displacement Fundamental vs. Realized Niche Defense against – / –

  27. Competitive Exclusion

  28. Resource Partitioning

  29. Character Displacement

  30. Fundamental & Realized Niches

  31. Fundamental & Realized Niches

  32. Interspecific Interactions

  33. Food Chains

  34. Marsh Food Web

  35. Field Food Web

  36. Soil Food Web

  37. Aquatic Food Web

  38. Keystone Species

  39. Keystone Species

  40. Ecological Succession

  41. Interspecific Interactions

  42. Ecological Succession

  43. Primary Succession-Volcano

  44. Primary Succession-Moraine

  45. Primary Succession: Morain