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What is Swimming?. History of Swimming.

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history of swimming
History of Swimming

Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800 BCE, mostly using the breaststroke. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native Americans. Due to a British disregard for splashing, Trudgen employed a scissor kick instead of the front crawl’sflutter kick. Swimming was part of the first modern olympic games in 1896 in Athens.In 1902 Richard Cavill introduced the front crawl to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Federation internationale de natation was formed. The butterfly stroke was developed in the 1930s and was at first a breaststroke variant, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. In 1964, Lillian Bonnell won the award for being the first woman to participate in a swimming competition and because of her now millions of women participate every year.

rules in swimming
Rules in Swimming
  • The technical rules of swimming are designed to provide fair and equitable conditions of competition and to promote uniformity in the sport. Each swimming stroke has specific rules designed to ensure that no swimmer gets an unfair competitive advantage over another swimmer.
  • Trained officials observe the swimmers during each event to ensure compliance with these technical rules. If a swimmer commits an infraction of the rules that is observed by an offical, a disqualification (DQ) will result. This means that the swimmer will not receive an official time and will not be eligible for an award in that event. A disqualification may result from actions such as not getting to the starting blocks on time, false starting, performing strokes in an illegal manner, or unsportsman­like conduct.
rules in strokes
Rules in Strokes
  • DQs are also a result of technical rules violations. They include but are not limited to:
  • Freestyle: Walking on the bottom, pulling on the lane rope, not touching the wall on a turn, or not completing the distance.
  • Backstroke: Pulling or kicking into the wall once a swimmer has turned passed the vertical onto the breast. Turning onto the breast before touching the wall with the hand at the finish of the race.
  • Breaststroke: An illegal kick such as flutter (freestyle), dolphin (butterfly), or scissors (side stroke); not on the breast; alternating movements of the arms; taking two arm strokes or two leg kicks while the head is under water; touching with only one hand at the turns or finish.
  • Butterfly: Alternating movements of the arms or legs; pushing the arms forward under instead of over the water surface (underwater recovery); a breaststroke style of kick; touching with only one hand at the turns or finish.
officials
Officials
  • Referee
  • Starter
  • Clerk of Course
  • Timekeepers
  • Inspectors of Turns
  • Judges of Stroke
  • Finish Judges