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Top Enablers and Inhibitors of Affordable Systems. Supannika Koolmanojwong, Jo Ann Lane, Rachchabhorn Wongsaroj ,Thammanoon Kawinfruangfukul , and Barry Boehm COCOMO Forum October 22, 2013. Overview. Affordability Tradespace Affordability Opportunity Tree

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top enablers and inhibitors of affordable systems

Top Enablers and Inhibitors of Affordable Systems

Supannika Koolmanojwong, Jo Ann Lane,

RachchabhornWongsaroj,ThammanoonKawinfruangfukul,

and Barry Boehm

COCOMO Forum

October 22, 2013

overview
Overview
  • Affordability Tradespace
  • Affordability Opportunity Tree
  • Cost Model Parameters Reflect TradespaceDecisions
  • Enablers and Inhibitors of the Affordable systems
affordability
Affordability
  • “The balance of system performance, cost, and schedule constraints over the system life cycle, while satisfying mission needs in concert with strategic and organizational needs.”
  • Affordable system is achievable via faster engineering and less rework.

INCOSESystems Engineering Handbook, version 3.2.2.

NDIA 8th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference

expedited system development
Expedited System Development
    • Capability development schedule from concept to delivery
  • Market window opportunity
  • Need to balance
    • shortcuts, one-time solution, maintainability

Faster, Faster, & FASTER!

We have time !!

system flexibility
System Flexibility
  • Design for reuse
  • Easily evolve in the future to meet future (unknown) needs
  • Interoperate with future systems
  • Need to balance
    • Performance issues, total ownership costs

One-time solution

Everything for everyone

technical debt
Technical Debt
  • Extra works to fix under par jobs
  • Intentional or unintentional debts
  • Need to balance
    • Get it done now, Refactor later, evolutionary plan

Untidy, poor structured

Easy to maintain

affordability tradespace
Affordability Tradespace

Tradespace:

Capability

Schedule

Flexibility

Technical

Debt

Capability

Capability

Schedule

Schedule

Flexibility

Flexibility

Technical

Debt

Tech

Debt

Desired balance:

Typical results:

example framework affordability opportunity tree
Example Framework: Affordability Opportunity Tree

Staffing, Incentivizing, Teambuilding

Get the Best from People

(Expedite, Minimize Tech Debt)

Facilities, Support Services

Kaizen (continuous improvement)

Tools and Automation

Make Tasks More Efficient

(Expedite)

Work and Oversight Streamlining

Collaboration Technology

Lean and Agile Methods

Eliminate Tasks

(Expedite)

Affordability Improvements and Tradeoffs

Task Automation

Model-Based Product Generation

Early Risk and Defect Elimination

Eliminate Scrap, Rework

(Expedite, Minimize Tech Debt)

Evidence-Based Decision Gates

Modularity Around Sources of Change

Incremental, Evolutionary Development

Value-Based, Agile Process Maturity

Risk-Based Prototyping

example framework affordability opportunity tree1
Example Framework: Affordability Opportunity Tree

Affordability Improvements and Tradeoffs

Risk-Based Prototyping

Simplify Products (KISS)

(Expedite)

Value-Based Capability Prioritization

Satisficing vs. Optimizing Performance

Reuse Components

(Expedite)

Domain Engineering and Architecture

Composable Components,Services, COTS

Legacy System Repurposing

Reduce Operations, Support Costs

(Minimize Tech Debt)

Automate Operations Elements

Design for Maintainability, Evolvability

Streamline Supply Chain

Value- and Architecture-Based

Tradeoffs and Balancing

(Longer-term investment, min Tech Debt)

Anticipate, Prepare for Change

pilot study data collection
Pilot Study: Data Collection
  • Software Engineering-related Classes
    • 60 graduate students
      • ~ 20%: full-time employee with 2-20 years experience
      • ~80%: Newly graduates, 0-5 years experience
    • 59 undergraduate students
      • 0-3 years experience (internship, co-op)
  • Information sources
    • Lectures, papers, class workshops
  • List enablers and inhibitors for
    • Technical Debt, Expedited Sys Development, Flexibility
common enablers
Common Enablers
  • Rapid Prototyping

Expedited Sys Dev

Technical Debt

  • Agile / Lean Approaches
  • Incremental test and Feedback
  • Skilled team members

System Flexibility

  • Reuse, Use of NDI / COTS
  • Incremental test and Feedback
  • Requirements Flexibility
  • Incremental test and Feedback
common inhibitors
Common Inhibitors

Expedited Sys Dev

Technical Debt

  • Inexperience Team Members
  • Unrealistic expectations

System Flexibility

  • Technology Immaturity / Volatility
  • Requirements Volatility
  • Lack of / Poor documentation
two sides of the same coin
Two sides of the same coin
  • Reuse, Use of NDI / COTS
    • Enable and inhibit at the same time for all three aspects
  • Lack of documentation
      • Enable the Expedition, but inhibit the TD management and flexibility
  • Agile/Lean Approach
    • Enable the Expedition, but inhibit the TD management and flexibility
conclusions
Conclusions
  • High similarity of the affordability enablers from Opportunity tree, cost model, and class workshop
    • Get the best people
    • Incremental development
  • Top inhibitors
    • Inexperienced people
    • Unrealistic expectation
  • Wildcard
    • Reuse, use of COTS/ NDI
    • Agile/Lean
    • Lack of documentation
references
References
  • INCOSE, Systems Engineering Handbook, version 3.2.2. San Diego, CA, USA: International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). INCOSE-TP-2003-002-03.2, December 2011.
  • Robert Neches, Engineered Resilient Systems (ERS) S&T Priority Description and Roadmap, NDIA 8th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference , 8 November 2011