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The Challenges of Urbanization. Chapter 7 Section 2 By: Lindsey Kaufmann. Urban Opportunities. Technology boom in the 19 th century Urbanization Jobs 1790 95% of people lived in the country sides 1990 three out of four Americans lived in the cities. Immigrants Settle in the Cities.

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The Challenges of Urbanization


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    1. The Challenges of Urbanization Chapter 7 Section 2 By: Lindsey Kaufmann

    2. Urban Opportunities • Technology boom in the 19th century • Urbanization • Jobs • 1790 95% of people lived in the country sides • 1990 three out of four Americans lived in the cities

    3. Immigrants Settle in the Cities • City dwellers • Cheapest • Unskilled laborers jobs • Tradition • Services: merchants, docks, markets, entertainment • Americanization movement- put together a range of different cultures in to one big one

    4. Migration From Country to City • Farming technology • McCormick reaper • Steel plow • Farmers move to city • Depend on unpredictable environment

    5. Urban Problems • Population skyrocketed • Government problems • Needed services • Safe living conditions

    6. Housing • Two options • Tenements • 1879 law passed that set minimum standards for plumbing and ventilation in apartments • Suburbs appear 18th century • Mansions- rich

    7. Transportation • Mass transit • Old and new systems Electric subways introduced in 1897. Street cars were introduced in 1873

    8. Water • 1860s some had no pipes for water or the pipes were gross • No indoor plumbing • To get water • Street • Fill pail • Bath water • Diseases of cholera and typhoid • Purifying • Infiltration in 1870s • Chlorination in 1908

    9. Infiltration is the process of removing particles and rocks from liquid. • Chlorination is a method of purifying water by mixing it with the chemical chlorine.

    10. Sanitation • Streets • Sewage • 1900s the sewer lines were developed • Scavengers

    11. Crime • Crime rate and population increased • 1844 full time police • Newspapers exaggerated • Police and judges-bribes

    12. Fire • Water -limited • Houses • Earthquakes • Fire fighters • Invention in 1874 • 1853 1st national fire department

    13. The Great Chicago Fire October 8–10, 1871 • The fire burned for over 24 hours. • An estimated 300 people died. • 100,000 were left homeless. • More than 3 square miles of the city center was destroyed. • Property loss was estimated at $200 million. • 17,500 buildings were destroyed.

    14. The San Francisco Earthquake April 18, 1906 • The quake lasted 28 seconds; fires burned for 4 days. • An estimated 1,000 people died. • Over 200,000 were left homeless. • Fire swept through 5 square miles of the city. • Property loss was estimated at $500 million. • 28,000 buildings were destroyed

    15. Reformers Mobilize • Problems in cities increased • Concerned Americans

    16. The Settlement House Movement • Social Gospel Movement – reform program • Preached salvation to the poor • Reformers responded by helping the urban poor • Settlement houses – like shelters in neighborhoods that need assistance • Run by women • Provided educational, cultural, and social services • Classes in English, health, painting, college extension courses • Nurses • Founded by Charles Stover and Stanton Coit in 1886 in New York City • Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Chicago’s Hull House in 1889 • 1910 there were 400 across the country

    17. Jane Addams • Lived for 75 years • Visited Toynbee hall – first settlement house • Believed settlement houses were effective • cofounded Chicago’s Hull House in 1889

    18. Jane Addams • 9,000 people came to the Hull House each week • The Hull House inspired 400 other settlement houses • Architect to welfare • 1931 co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize (4 years before she died)

    19. Sources • The Americans Reconstruction to the 21st Century, written by: McDougal Littell, Chapter 7, Section 2 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization • http://www.theusaonline.com/people/urbanization.htm • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=161