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Teacher education via ODL

Teacher education via ODL

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Teacher education via ODL

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  1. Based on Experiences in Developing Nations From Reflections to Action Teacher education via ODL Clayton R. Wright, PhD crwr77@gmail.com

  2. Imagine a world without teachers. Is this possible? Teacher Education via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  3. Educators provide the knowledge and skills people can use to better their lives and improve their communities. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  4. Effective educators are committed to excellence. They continually improve their practice. Some rely on face-to-face methods, others rely on distance learning, on technology, or a combination of methods. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  5. List four benefits for offering teacher training via open and distance learning (ODL). Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  6. The benefits of using ODL for teacher education accrue to: • the individual, • the learners they teach, • the community, and • the educational system. SahrSorrie, Sierra Leone Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  7. Benefits to the Individual Teachers: • have greater access to educational opportunities. • can remain at home; family stability is fostered. • are able to earn a salary while studying. • remain on the salary grid. • can immediately apply what they have learned to the classroom. • gain confidence in their teaching abilities. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  8. Benefits to the Individual continued Teachers: • gain respect from their family and colleagues. • acquire research skills that benefit themselves, their learners, and the community. • are frequently offered or take on new responsibilities. • can continue to contribute to their community. C. R. Wright Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  9. Benefits to the Learners They Teach Students benefit as they are exposed to: • a teacher who is willing to learn. • the concept of life-long learning. • new instructional-learning practices. • new resources included in the ODL materials (which are often shared). • ideas that lie beyond their communities. • a more confident teacher. C. R. Wright, Botswana Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  10. Benefits to the Community Communities benefit because: • their teacher, who is often highly respected as a leader, is still available to them. This contributes to stability within the community. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright C. R. Wright, Sri Lanka

  11. Benefits to the Community continued • the community will not need to find a substitute teacher– a challenge in rural areas. • the teacher can expose them to new ideas. • they gain pride and respect for one of their own who is advancing his or her education. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright C. R. Wright, Sri Lanka

  12. Benefits to the Educational System • Uncertified teachers can be upgraded easily. • As conventional institutions are unable to meet the demand for teacher training, ODL is a welcomed option. • As the population grows, fewer conventional institutions must be built to train teachers. C. R. Wright, Botswana Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  13. Benefits to the Educational System continued • Costs associated with the provision of residential-based programs are reduced; thus, ODL is cost-effective. • Teachers remain at their posts. Thus, fewer substitute teachers are required. Photo by Ruth Mogana-Monyepi, Botswana C. R. Wright Wright Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  14. Benefits to the Educational System continued • As teachers don’t leave their community to study, they are likely to remain in the community. • The quality of schooling improves gradually as teachers apply their new skills as they learn. C. R. Wright Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  15. Do you list these benefits when you market your program or need to convince others to contribute resources? Photo by Bethel Masauli, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  16. Today’s Topics If teacher training via ODL is to accrue its many benefits, we must focus efforts on areas that consistently require our attention: • Overcoming the resistance to ODL • Providing supportive human resources • Designing effective modules • Providing an efficient program delivery system • Implementing quality assurance Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  17. Bangladesh • Botswana • India • Malawi • Malaysia • Nigeria • Sierra Leone • Sri Lanka • Tanzania • The Gambia This presentation is based on my experiences with teacher training programs in: Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  18. Together, we will focus on what works. I will provide real stories that clarify points noted on each screen. But, you have to dosomething too! GopaBiswas and Neelam Gupta, India Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  19. You should: • reflect upon your current operation, • makea decision about what could be improved and how it could be improved, and • take action after this presentation. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  20. A Fact: Not everyone appreciates the merits and effectiveness of ODL. Photo by AMREF, Kenya What resistance have you encountered? Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  21. Overcoming the Resistance to ODL • Define clearly what ODL means. Some institutions are not entirely open as they restrict entry requirements, entry points, and student progress. • Convince key members of the community about the benefits of ODL. Photo by Fred Msiska, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  22. Overcoming the Resistance to ODL continued • Offer the same accreditation designation as conventional programs. Focus on the outcomes not the method of instruction. • Design your ODL program in a ladder format – certificate, diploma, and degree with minimum content overlap. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  23. Overcoming the Resistance to ODL continued • Treat students wellas successful students will be the primary promoters of the program (bad news always travels faster than good news). • Provide detail orientation to learners. • Give learners continuous positive support. • Respond to student concerns in a timely and effective manner. Photo by OlabisiKuboni, Trinidad and Tobago Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  24. Overcoming the Resistance to ODL continued • Ensure that the ODL program has adequate resources so that it is not considered to be “second rate”. • Involve community members in the ODL program, e.g., mentors for special projects. • Follow the progress of graduates and use graduates to market the program. • Inform students about graduates who have attained public recognition for their work. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  25. Teacher training by ODL may fail if: • Ministries of Education don’t recognize ODL certification at the same level as similar face-to-face programs. • ODL graduates are unable tomove up the salary grid. • ODL graduates are denied higher positions within the educational system. C. R. Wright, Nigeria Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  26. Human Resources Caring, knowledgeable, and committed professionals form the foundation of successful ODL programs…but, many decision-makers focus on technology and material resources. What do you focus on? On a school wall in northern Botswana Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  27. Human Resources continued • Greater emphasis should be placed on hiring the right people for the ODL program – people who genuinely care about students. • It is paramount that ODL personnel deal with students in a professional, timely, and caring manner. Without students, no one in an ODL program would have a job! K. A. L. Githani, Sri Lanka Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  28. Human Resources - Management Management should be: • Accountable • Action-oriented • Aware of the consequences of inaction (distrust and low morale can be a high cost to pay) • Transparent • Forward looking • Committed to ODL and ODL learners C. R. Wright Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  29. Human Resources – A few suggestions • Provide detailed job descriptions for every position. Include duties, standards, and reporting relationships. • Conduct annual reviews– 360° reviews. • Ensure all staff sign a code of conduct that addresses ethical issues such as whether tutors can charge their own students for tutoring. Isatou Newlands, Gambia Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  30. Human Resources – A few suggestions continued • Develop an intellectual property document that clearly specifies who owns what. For example, do tutors own the learning materials they create? • Ensure employees are paid in a timely manner. Photo by BethelMasauli, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  31. Human Resources – A few suggestions continued • Provide training, especially for tutors. • Offer mentorship programs. Photo by Bethel Masauli, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  32. Human Resources – Two observations • Management often believes strongly in the benefits of professional development. But when budgets are tight, it is eliminated. Yet, we continually stress the importance of an education and keeping up-to-date. C. R. Wright, Sierra Leone Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  33. Human Resources – Two observations • A decentralized model can work effectively, but one person at the local level must make a decision and act! Dr. S. Kolimba, Tanzania Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  34. Human Resources - Tutors Tutors determine learners’ needs and guide learners thru challenges such as deciphering difficult material and dealing with stress, isolation, and the fear of learning. Photo by Bethel Masauli, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  35. Human Resources - Tutors • Tutors should focus on facilitation rather than lecturing. • They should focus not only on knowledge acquisition, but also on emotional well-being. C. R. Wright, Malaysia Ahmad Zaini bin Idris, , Nasfi bin Ismail and Kusyaimir bin Abd. Moin, Malaysia C. R. Wright, Sierra Leone Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  36. Human Resources - Tutors Tutors should be committed to helping students! They should be selected for their knowledge, people skills, and reliability. What selection criteria do you use for tutors? TemitayoOlowola, Nigeria Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  37. Human Resources - Tutors Tutors should be: • knowledgeable, • reliable, • superb listeners, • supportive and encouraging, • patient, • good time managers, and • excellent record keepers. Edith Kpendema Sierra Leone Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  38. Human Resources continued For struggling students, the educators’ human warmth and professional courtesycan make the difference between succeeding and dropping out. How could you improve your human resources – selection and management? Photo by Bethel Masauli, Malawi Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  39. Designing Effective Modules continued Learning via an information dump. People do learn this way, but is it effective? Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  40. Designing Effective Modules continued Effective modules: • Are attractive and legible with good contrast between text and background. • Present languagethat is clear, direct, and congruent with the abilities of the audience. • Are written in a conversational tone that is supportive and encouraging. Sunday Reju, Namibia Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  41. Designing Effective Modules continued • Outline clear learning outcomes that do not include the phrases “to understand”, “to be familiar with”, or “to realize”. • Are relevant and up-to-date. • Are interactive and demand learners do something with the content they are learning. • Contain illustrations and step-by-step instructions. • Do not contain any biases, unless bias is the subject of the discussion. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  42. Designing Effective Modules continued • Contain numerous examples and case studies that are familiar and unfamiliar. • Contain a mixture of realistic activities – individual, group, and community involvement. • Contain activities that encourage critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity. • Enable learners to select activities that match their interests, abilities, and the environment in which they live. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  43. Designing Effective Modules continued • Include all the basic knowledgeresources required to complete the program. • Refer the learners to other resources that may extend their knowledge. • Have a glossary of terms. • Provide frequent opportunities for practice and knowledge transfer. • Provide a detail description of the evaluation criteria that will be used. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  44. Designing Effective Modules continued Online modules should make optimum use of: • links to resources, • feedback capabilities, • online discussions, • simulations, • games, • virtual field trips, and • social networking tools. Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  45. Designing Effective Modules continued What aspects of your modules need to be improved? Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  46. Designing Effective Modules continued • A good module is one you can be proud of. • An effective module enables learners to develop confidence in their abilities and apply what they have learned. C. R. Wright, Tanzania Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  47. Designing Effective Modules continued Don’t forget to consider the use of OERs. • African Virtual University • MERLOT • OER Africa • Teacher Education in • Sub-Saharan Africa • Virtual University for Small States of the Commonwealth Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  48. Designing Effective Modules continued If you don’t get the modules out to the learners, why make them? Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  49. Program Delivery Executing the effective and efficient delivery of an ODL program, especially in rural areas, is a significant challenge, but not an insurmountable one. C. R. Wright, Northern Botswana Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright

  50. Program Delivery continued • Learning centres • Communities of practice • Handling assignments • Using mobile phones C. R. Wright Teacher Training via ODL: From Reflections to Action, Clayton R. Wright