Predicting Questioning Reciprocal Teaching Clarifying Summarizing Renae Ellsworth University of West Florida RED6161
Overview • Reciprocal Teaching (RT) is a dialogue between the teacher and students who work together to comprehend text. • It compiles four comprehension strategies. Predicting, Questioning, Clarifying and Summarizing • RT can be used for all grade levels. • Subjects such as Reading, Science and Social Studies can be used. • Through teacher modeling and guided practices students can successfully use this strategy.
Prior to Reciprocal Teaching • In 1982, Brown and Palincsar, developed a training program. • This program concentrated on improving reading comprehension skills. • Through questioning, students became more active in their comprehension activities. • The focus was on summarizing and predicting.
Research • Palincsarand Brown (1984), developed Reciprocal Teaching. • A pilot study was conducted. • Students’ comprehension scores were 85% after the use of Reciprocal Teaching. • Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with the same pattern of successful results. • The results proved to be reliable. • Teacher’ reported better comprehension, thinking skills and students could organize information.
Role of the Teacher • Group students and assign roles • Models how to use each strategy • Responsible for leading the dialogue • Provides support and monitors • Gradual release of responsibility
How the student learns from the strategy • Students begin to internalize and use the strategies after practice • This strategy allows the student to self-monitor his/her comprehension • Students learn to answer higher level questions • Students become active in their reading comprehension. • Students become more aware of their comprehension skills.
Activating Prior Knowledge • To make predictions students have to activate prior knowledge. • Students connect new knowledge with what they already know. • The teacher will review key points from partially completed passages.
Role of Vocabulary Unfamiliar words can be discussed and/or looked up • during questioning • during clarifying Remember the teacher is also monitoring and provides support.
Constructivism or Direct Instruction? • The teacher directly instructs students in the four strategies. • The teacher directly instructs how to ask the questions and conduct the discussion • There is a gradual release of responsibility to the students. • This strategy in not congruent to Constructivism.
Outcomes • Students learn four comprehension strategies • Students begin to internalize and use the strategies after practice • It allows the student to self-monitor his/her comprehension • Comprehension improves • Organization of thoughts and thinking improves
Evidence of Effectiveness • Student dialogue’s improved • All but one student improved through the studies • Up to eight weeks later students showed no drop in performance • The skills generalized to the classroom setting • Students generalized skills to laboratory settings to summarize and predict • Standardized comprehension scores improved • Successful in natural setting with teacher and in setting with experimenter • Teacher’s were enthusiastic once they employed this in the routines.
References Seminal Articles Brown, A. L. & Palincsar, A. S. (1982). Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed, self-control training. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities, 2(1), 1-17. Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension- monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117-175. YouTube and reading Rockets video – Second grade teacher models Reciprocal Teaching Read Write Think website – books and lessons plans