enhancing critical and creative thinking skills l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 96

Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 349 Views
  • Uploaded on

Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills. Bhoendradatt Tewarie Director, Institute of Critical Thinking UWI St. Augustine. I Some basics to stimulate discussion. “I think, therefore, I am”. René Descartes (1596-1650) French philosopher, mathematician and physicist

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills' - avery


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
enhancing critical and creative thinking skills

Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills

Bhoendradatt Tewarie

Director, Institute of Critical Thinking

UWI St. Augustine

i some basics to stimulate discussion
ISome basicsto stimulate discussion

© Institute of Critical Thinking

i think therefore i am
“I think, therefore, I am”

René Descartes (1596-1650)

French philosopher, mathematician and physicist

“Father of Modern Philosophy”

In his Discourse on the Method (1637) he attempted to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one could know as true without any doubt (a foundation of knowledge). To achieve this, he employed a method of systematic doubt, where he rejected any idea that could be doubted, i.e. everything he perceived through his senses.

Descartes then arrived at the principle: “Je pense, donc je suis” or “I think, therefore I am” (Latin: cogito ergo sum)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide4

“I become what I think”

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide5

“High thinking and simple living” –

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide6
People, events, things, issues, ideas, concept – the mundane, material, the world around us, the meaning of things

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide7

The material, the philosophical, the spiritual

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide8

Is there any relationship between the focus of one’s thoughts and the quality of one’s existence, the quality of life?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

ii logical thinking and lateral thinking
IILogical thinking and lateral thinking

© Institute of Critical Thinking

logical thinking
Logical thinking

A process in which one uses reasoning consistently to come to a conclusion

The ability to understand and to incorporate the rules of basic logical inference in everyday activities

Cause and effect

© Institute of Critical Thinking

logical thinking examples
Logical thinking examples
  • A doctor diagnosing a patient’s illness
  • An engineer trying to determine why a machine is not working
  • You have six pairs of black socks and six pairs of white socks in a drawer. In complete darkness, and without looking, what is the least number of socks must you take from the drawer in order to be sure you get a matching pair?
  • A milkman has two empty jugs: a three gallon jug and a five gallon jug. How can he measure exactly one gallon of milk without wasting any?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

lateral thinking
Lateral thinking

“methods of thinking concerned with changing concepts and perception” - (Edward de Bono)

It is about reasoning that is not immediately obvious and about ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic

Thinking “outside the box”

© Institute of Critical Thinking

lateral thinking examples
Lateral thinking examples

Connect the nine dots below using four straight lines without lifting your pen from the paper.

How could a baby fall out of a twenty-storey building onto the ground and live?

A man walks into a bar and asks for a drink of water. The bartender thinks for a minute, pulls out a gun and points it at him. The man says, "Thank you," and walks out. What happened?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

13

deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
  • In deductive reasoning onearrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations
    • All apples are fruit. Some apples are red. Therefore some fruit are red.
    • The houses in this area vary in size so that some houses may have more rooms or larger rooms than others.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
  • In inductive reasoning one makes generalizations based on individual instances
    • All observed corbeaux are black. Therefore: All corbeaux are black.
    • All known cases of human bleeding reveal that the colour of blood is red. Therefore the colour of human blood is red.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide16

Analysis – the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it

Reason – to think in a connected, sensible, or logical manner; to find a rational motive for a belief or action

Rationality – the state of having good sense and sound judgment

Logic – the study of the principles of valid inference and argument

Analysis → Reason → Rationality → Logic

© Institute of Critical Thinking

iii strategic thinking
IIIStrategic thinking

© Institute of Critical Thinking

strategy
Strategy
  • A long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal
    • military strategy
    • marketing strategy
    • political campaign strategy
    • game strategy

© Institute of Critical Thinking

strategic thinking
Strategic thinking
  • Focuses on finding and developing unique opportunities to create value
    • facilitated by enabling a provocative and creative dialogue among people who can affect for example, a company’s direction
    • solving a problem
    • finding new ways of doing something
  • Strategic thinking in an organization, involves synthesis, using intuition and creatively forming a shared vision of where the organization should be heading if it is to survive and prosper in the current and future market place.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

strategic thinking20
Strategic thinking

Jeanne Liedtka. (1998). Strategic thinking; can it be taught?, Long Range Planning, 31, (1), 120-129

Systems perspective – see the system as a whole and the linkages between the individual parts

Intent focus – convey a sense of direction and discovery

Hypothesis driven – embrace hypothesis generation and testing as core activities

Think in time – able to connect the past with the present and link it to the future

Intelligent opportunism – open to new experiences

© Institute of Critical Thinking

strategic thinking21
Strategic thinking

“Taken together, these five elements describe a strategic thinker with a broad field view that sees the whole and the connections between its pieces”. (Liedtka 1998)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

analytical thinking
Analytical thinking
  • In analytical thinking, one uses a methodical step-by-step approach to break down complex problems or processes into their constituent parts, identifies cause and effect patterns and analyzes problems to arrive to an appropriate solution

© Institute of Critical Thinking

strategic planning
Strategic planning
  • Strategic planning is about analysis (breaking down a goal into steps, determining how the steps could be implemented, and identifying the possible consequences of each step)
    • An organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people

© Institute of Critical Thinking

iv creative thinking
IVCreative thinking

© Institute of Critical Thinking

creative thinking
Creative thinking

Joseph Schumpeter (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

  • Creative thinking – generating new ideas by combining, changing, or re-applying existing ideas
  • Schumpeter (1883-1950) described an entrepreneur as an individual who carries out “new combinations” such as:
    • Introducing a new good
    • Introducing a new method of production
    • Opening a new market
    • Identifying a new source of supply of raw materials
    • Forming a new organization of any industry

© Institute of Critical Thinking

creativity
Creativity

Creativity – a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts

© Institute of Critical Thinking

the creative process
The creative process
  • One of the earliest models of the creative process is attributed to Graham Wallas (1926) who proposed that creative thinking proceeds through four phases:
    • Preparation (definition of issue, observation, study, information gathering)
    • Incubation (laying the issue aside for some time)
    • Illumination (emerging of the new idea)
    • Verification (checking it out)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

the creative process29
The creative process
  • Several other models have been proposed, but one common theme is that the creative process involves:
    • Analysis (breaking down the problem/issue into smaller more easily understandable parts)
    • Evaluation (determining whether an item or activity meets specified criteria)
    • Imagination (forming images and ideas in the mind)
    • Synthesis (combining existing ideas/concepts into something new)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

the creative process at work
The creative process at work

Music

Art

Dance

Inventions – airplane, telephone

Innovations – Apple iPhone, Gateway (Dell personal computers)

Creative problem solving – using a knife/letter opener to tighten a screw when a screwdriver is not available

© Institute of Critical Thinking

v critical thinking
VCritical thinking

© Institute of Critical Thinking

critical thinking
Critical thinking
  • “the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action” (Scriven & Paul, 1992)
  • “reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do” (Ennis, 1992).

© Institute of Critical Thinking

bloom s taxonomy of the cognitive domain
Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain

Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green

© Institute of Critical Thinking

critical thinking creativity and the critical creative process
Critical thinking, creativity and the critical/creative process
  • Both creative and critical thinking involve the use of high order thinking skills
  • In the creative process one uses:
    • creative thinking skills (synthesis and imagination) in the preparation and verification phases
    • critical thinking skills (analysis and evaluation) in the incubation and illumination phases

© Institute of Critical Thinking

creative vs critical thinking
Creative vs critical thinking

(Isaksen and Treffinger (1985), Creative Problem Solving: The Basic Course)

Creative thinking is described as:

  • making and communicating connections to think of many possibilities;
  • think and experience in various ways and use different points of view;
  • think of new and unusual possibilities; and
  • guide in generating and selecting alternatives.

Critical thinking is described as:

  • analyzing and developing possibilities to compare and contrast many ideas
  • improve and refine ideas
  • make effective decisions and judgments, and
  • provide a sound foundation for effective action.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

creative vs critical thinking36
Creative vs critical thinking

Creative thinking

Divergent

Right brain (global, parallel, emotional, subjective)

Synthesis

Critical thinking

Convergent

Left brain (analytic, serial, logical, objective)

Evaluation

© Institute of Critical Thinking

36

slide37
Scientific thinking – using the scientific method (1. Identify a problem you would like to solve; 2. Formulate a hypothesis; 3. Test the hypothesis; 4. Collect and analyze the data; 5. Make conclusions) to study or investigate nature or the universe

Innovative/adaptive thinking – the ability to react to unexpected changes

Problem-solving – the ability to analyze information related to a given situation and generate appropriate response options

Judgment – the formation of an opinion after consideration or deliberation

Decision-making – the process of choosing between alternative courses of action

© Institute of Critical Thinking

summary of elements of critical thinking
Summary of elements of critical thinking

Critical thinking involves using the following skills to make a decision, come to a conclusion or solve a problem.

  • Conceptualization: forming ideas
  • Application: using information in new situations
  • Analysis: breaking down problems/issues into smaller more easily understandable parts
  • Synthesis: combining existing ideas/concepts into something new
  • Evaluation: determining whether an item or activity meets specified criteria

© Institute of Critical Thinking

12 pillars of economic competitiveness
12 pillars of economic competitiveness

Institutions

Infrastructure

Macroeconomic stability

Health and primary education

Higher education & training

Goods market efficiency

Labour market efficiency

Financial market sophistication

Technological readiness

Market size

Business sophistication

Innovation

© Institute of Critical Thinking

global competitiveness index ranks 1 20
Global Competitiveness Index (Ranks 1-20)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

global competitiveness index ranks 21 40
Global Competitiveness Index (Ranks 21-40)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

global competitiveness index ranks in latin america and the caribbean
Global Competitiveness Index ranks in Latin America and the Caribbean

© Institute of Critical Thinking

trinidad tobago economy
Trinidad & Tobago economy

[source: ECLAC (2008 preliminary figures)]

  • GDP (ppp): $24.2 billion
  • GDP per capita (ppp): $18,087

© Institute of Critical Thinking

t t share of gdp
T&T – Share of GDP

[source: CSO Pocket Digest 2008]

© Institute of Critical Thinking

t t labour force
T&T – Labour force

[source: LABORSTA (ILO database on labour statistics) <http://laborsta.ilo.org/>]

(2008 projections)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

t t employment by economic activity
T&T – Employment by economic activity

[source: LABORSTA (ILO database on labour statistics) http://laborsta.ilo.org/]

(2008 figures)

  • Agriculture: 3.8%
  • Mining and quarrying (incl. petr. & gas extraction): 3.5%
  • Manufacturing: 9.2%
  • Construction and utilities: 19.5%
  • Services and other: 64.0%
  • Public sector: 26.5%
    • General government sector:23.1%
    • Publicly owned enterprises: 3.4%
  • Private sector: 73.5%

© Institute of Critical Thinking

t t exports
T&T Exports
  • Exports: $15.9 billion
  • Oil and gas account for 80% of exports

[source: World Factbook (2008 estimates)]

© Institute of Critical Thinking

unemployment relief programme urp
Unemployment Relief Programme (URP)

Main objective is to provide short term employment relief while enhancing the skills of individuals in the community

Work is provided on a rotation basis, every two to three fortnights (four to six weeks) 

URP workers are not entitled to any employment benefits or vacation leave

Labourers are paid a stipend of about $650 a fortnight (about $1,300 per month)

URP employs 50,000-60,000 people

© Institute of Critical Thinking

community based environmental protection and enhancement programme cepep
Community Based Environmental Protection and Enhancement Programme(CEPEP)

Designed to facilitate social transformation in the national community through empowering communities to improve their living standards by increasing employment opportunities; enhancing and improving the environment; and developing a cadre of entrepreneurs

CEPEP has over 100 contractors who employ over 5,000 contract workers

In 2008/2009 national budget, TT$300 million allocated to CEPEP

© Institute of Critical Thinking

cepep for 300m shared among 100 contractors and 5 000 workers
CEPEP – For $300m shared among 100 contractors and 5,000 workers

© Institute of Critical Thinking

t t tertiary education
T&T – Tertiary education

[source: UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009]

*2005 data; **2004 data

  • Gross Enrolment Ratio (tertiary)*: 11%
  • Total tertiary enrolment*: 17,000
  • Enrolment in science and technology**:
    • Science: 13.7%
    • Engineering, manufacturing and construction: 22.6%

© Institute of Critical Thinking

productivity
Productivity

© Institute of Critical Thinking

vi non critical thinking
VINon-critical thinking

DAY 2

© Institute of Critical Thinking

non critical thinking
Non-critical thinking

Prejudicial thinking – gathering evidence to support a particular position without questioning the position itself

Habitual thinking – thinking based on past practices without considering current data

Group thinking (groupthink) – “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action” (Janis, 1972)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

how to gain audience sympathy
How to gain audience sympathy
  • Appeal to pity, appeal to emotions
  • Appeal to authority, experts
  • Appeal to tradition – ideals, accepted norms
  • Appeal to precedent

© Institute of Critical Thinking

presenting facts
Presenting facts
  • Use of statistics
    • Is the source reliable?
    • What is and isn’t being said? e.g. “More people choose brand X than Y” How much is “more”?
    • How is the data being interpreted/represented?
    • Don’t be fooled by large numbers, don’t overlook small numbers
  • Organizing/classifying information – use of “all” or “some”, or implicit use of “all”
  • Definition of terms

© Institute of Critical Thinking

the role of critical thinking
The role of critical thinking
  • Critical thinking can be used to help make more well thought-out evaluations and judgements in tasks such as reading reports, listening to interviewee responses and mediating conflicts.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

critical reading skills
Critical reading skills
  • What is the problem?
    • How is the problem formulated?
    • Why is this problem important?
    • What is the history of this problem?
    • Which prominent personalities have been interested in this problem?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

critical reading skills62
Critical reading skills
  • What solutions to the problem are there?
    • What are the conclusions reached?
    • By what argument(s) is the conclusion reached?
    • What facts or assumptions serve as premises?
    • When a prominent personality offers a solution, does he also argue for or against other prominent personalities? Does he raise objections to alternative solutions? Does he consider objections to his own solutions?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

critical reading skills63
Critical reading skills
  • Evaluation
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the alternative formulations to the problem?
    • Has the importance or history of the problem ever been misrepresented?
    • Are the solutions logically related to the premises?
    • Are the facts true? Are the assumptions acceptable? Are the objections answerable?

© Institute of Critical Thinking

viii some important things to appreciate
VIIISome important things to appreciate

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide65

Brain – the portion of the vertebrate central

nervous system enclosed in the skull

  • Intellect – capacity for knowledge
  • Mind – the element or complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons
  • Imagination – the act or power of forming a mental image of something not present to the senses or never before wholly perceived in reality; a creation of the mind

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide68

The creative process at work

Models of creativity

© Institute of Critical Thinking

ix developing your thinking skills your creativity and your mind
IXDeveloping yourthinking skills, yourcreativity and your mind

© Institute of Critical Thinking

create
CREATE

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide71
Multiply vs divide – striking the balance

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide72
Body, mind, spirit – Harmony

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide73
A sunny virtual space

for self immersion

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide74
Using humor to undermine fear
  • Transforming fear into directed energy

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide75
Triumph over cynicism

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide77
Take control of your life
  • Make the obvious more obvious
  • Jump steps to success
  • Travel the clear-unclear road to happiness
  • Get unstuck
  • Relax the big squeeze of life

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide78
Maintain the essential tension
  • Resist the slides of boredom and indifference
  • Never pass on your passion
  • Call it like you see it, honestly
  • Remake your self-image
  • Take your time … and your space

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide79
Hmmm…find new ideas in the paradox
  • “Simplexity”: See the simple in the complex
  • Cut the stress lines
  • Hunt for satisfying work
  • Remove the walls of your mind
  • Envision your creative process

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide80
Fish for the bigger meaning
  • Add to invention
  • Shift your social solar systems

© Institute of Critical Thinking

slide81
See the whole of your creativity

© Institute of Critical Thinking

x complex thinking
XComplex thinking

© Institute of Critical Thinking

complex thinking
Complex thinking
  • Complex thinking combines the basic learning and recall of accepted information, critical thinking, and creative thinking into larger, action-oriented processes.
  • Cohen (1971) and Presseisen (2001) described four specific complex thinking processes:
    • problem solving (resolve a known difficulty)
    • decision making (choose the best alternative)
    • critical thinking (understand particular meaning)
    • creative thinking (create novel or aesthetic ideas or products).

© Institute of Critical Thinking

complex thinking for public sector leaders
Complex thinking for public sector leaders
  • Although different in many aspects, public and private sector leaders focus on value for their customers/clients
  • The customers of the public sector are the citizens to whom services are provided

© Institute of Critical Thinking

complex thinking for public sector leaders85
Complex thinking for public sector leaders

Complex thinking can be used to:

  • Systematically solve problems by sensing, researching information, scanning the global environment, formulating the problem, finding alternatives, choosing a solution and building acceptance

© Institute of Critical Thinking

complex thinking for public sector leaders86
Complex thinking for public sector leaders

Complex thinking can be used to:

  • Produce new ideas by designing, imagining and formulating goals
  • Invent, assess and revise a product

© Institute of Critical Thinking

complex thinking for public sector leaders87
Complex thinking for public sector leaders

Complex thinking can be used to:

  • Make decisions
  • Systematically selecting between alternatives by identifying issues, generating alternatives, making choices and evaluating

© Institute of Critical Thinking

xi learning community
XILearning Community

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community
Communication for a learning community
  • “The defining quality of a learning community is that there is a culture of learning in which everyone is involved in a collective effort of understanding.” Chris Dede, Technical Horizons in Education (2004)

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community90
Communication for a learning community
  • The use of technology enhances the capability of complex thinkers to solve problems, formulate new ideas and make sound decisions
  • Learning communities in the educational environment are exposed to knowledge sources embedded in real world settings

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community91
Communication for a learning community
  • The University of the West Indies is presently utilising Moodle as a communications tool to expand the University’s learning community with on-site academics and students as well as with international scholars.

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community92
Communication for a learning community
  • Facilitates the transfer from the traditional behaviourist model of learning to broader more action-oriented learning
  • Allows the learner to actively participate in the analysis and synthesis of data → information, information → knowledge and knowledge → power

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community93
Communication for a learning community
  • Members of the learning community are masters and creators of their knowledge
  • The transfer of knowledge is creative and assists in the formulation of innovative ideas
  • Technology can be used easily to create, communicate and innovate

© Institute of Critical Thinking

communication for a learning community94
Communication for a learning community
  • The learning community, through the exchange of ideas becomes a tool for development

© Institute of Critical Thinking

xii motivation inspiration and team achievement
XIIMotivation, inspiration and team achievement

© Institute of Critical Thinking

xiii where do we go from here
XIIIWhere do we go from here?

© Institute of Critical Thinking