Chapter 10 “Agriculture”. Global Food Crisis – 2009!.
Most Canadians take food for granted. Even the poorest fifth of households in the United States spend only 16 percent of their budget on food. In many other countries, it is less of a given. Nigerian families spend 73 percent of their budgets to eat, Vietnamese 65 percent, Indonesians half.
Last year, the food import bill of developing countries rose by 25 percent as food prices rose to levels not seen in a generation. Corn doubled in price over the last two years. Wheat reached its highest price in 28 years. The increases are already sparking unrest from Haiti to Egypt. Many countries have imposed price controls on food or taxes on agricultural exports.
The World Bank, the UN, the International Monetary Fund and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) warned that rising food prices may cause social unrest, malnutrition and even starvation. Not only are food prices rising but food stocks, especially cereal are at an all time low.
More and more land and crops are being converted to corn and the production of Ethanol (biofuel)
FAO plans to give out vouchers to farmers in poor countries to purchase seeds and fertilizer and to help them adapt to changing climate conditions – the key is to help countries grow food locally and not have to rely on imports
Agriculture: Deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing animals for sustenance and/or economic gains.
Agriculture began when people began to understand how to domestic both plants and animals.
There were several main hearths, or centers of origin, for vegetative crops (roots and tubers, etc.), from which the crops diffused to other areas.
Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere.
Extensive – …
Intensive – …
Subsistence – ….
Extensive and Intensive is considered COMMERCIAL FARMING and done by the MDCs.
Subsistence is considered SUBSISTENCE FARMING and done by the LDCs
We will expand each one of these in class
We will expand each one of these in class
Terraced rice farming
Grain Farming - Wheat
Two very important people have to be studied when dealing with Agriculture:
Esther Boserup–discussed in the chapter on Population - mention her theory now.
Von Thunen– view the separate slide show that goes with this chapter
The following slides contain a series of maps for us to look at and analyze and come up with some generalizations about Agriculture.
A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.
Locations of the major types of subsistence and commercial agriculture.
Simplified map of the main world climate regions
Asian farmers grow over 90% of the world’s rice. India and China alone account for over half of world rice production.
The U.S. and China are the leading producers of corn (maize) in the world. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.
Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.
China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. and Canada account for about half of world wheat exports.
Cattle, sheep, and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.
The most severe desertification hazards are in northern Africa, central Australia, and the southwestern parts of Africa, Asia, North America, and South America.
Most countries are net importers of grain. The U.S. is the largest net exporter.
Of course not all crops are grown for food. There is Cotton and Tobacco, Natural Rubber, Tea and Coffee. There is also Coca (Cocaine) - Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, Marijuana - Mexico, Opium – Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand, and Hashish - Mexico as well.
The Meatrix series
Agricultural location model
Commercial agriculture (intensive, extensive)
Economic activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary)
Environmental modification (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification)
Extensive subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation [slash-and- burn, milpa, swidden], nomadic herding/pastoralism)
First agricultural revolution
Hunting and gathering
Intensive subsistence agriculture
Rural settlement (dispersed, nucleated, building material, village form)
Sauer, Carl O.
Second agricultural revolution
Survey patterns (long lots, metes and bounds, township-and-range)
Third agricultural revolution (mechanization, chemical farming, food manufacturing)
“Tragedy of the commons”
Von Thünen, Johann Heinrich