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  1. EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES Prof. Jintae Kim, PhD Alliance Theological Seminary (845) 353-2020 ext.6978 E-mail: Jintae.kim@nyack.edu Website: http://all4jesus.net

  2. I owe the content of this presentation to the class notes of Dr. Martin Sanders at Alliance Theological Seminary.

  3. 1. “Great Man” Theory (-1910 WWI) 2. “Traits” Theories (1910-50 WWII) 3. “Behavior” Theories (1950-): Covey Current Theories 1. “Contingency” Theories 2. “Transactional” Theories: 3. “Empowerment” Theories: The leader is the product of the followers. EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES

  4. Leadership is an intangible, inexplicable property almost mystically imbued in certain individuals. These “great men” were viewed as simply different from the rest of us who were destined to be followers. “GREAT MAN” THEORY (-1910)

  5. Unlike “great man” thinking, this research attempted to discover the nature of the difference between those destined to be the leaders and those destined to be the followers. Researchers looked for common psychological traits which caused people to be either followers or leaders. “TRAITS” THEORIES(1910-50)

  6. The rise of behaviorism (1960-85). Focus: Internal state of the leaders (I.e. values, personalities)  Leader behaviors. Ralph Stodgill and Alan Coons’ study: Two areas. 1. Consideration behavior: Interpersonal skills and warmth, participative communication style…. 2. Initiation of structure: Directiveness, goal facilitation, task-orientation…. “BEHAVIOR” THEORIES (1960-)

  7. PRESUPPOSITION: Depending upon certain contingencies, leadership behaviors will either be effective or ineffective. 절대적인 리더십 행위나 법칙은 없다. 동일한 리더십 행위도 상황에 따라 성공하기도 하고 실패하기도 한다. CONTRIBUTION: Followers and leader/follower relationships are an important contingency impacting leadership effectiveness. 추종자와 리더의 관계성의 중요성 “CONTINGENCY” THEORIES 상대성 이론

  8. Transactional theories view leadership-followership interaction as one or more transactions involving an exchange between leader and follower. Leaders tend to exchange ideals such as integrity or competence, the value of which is determined by the norms of the group. These transactions create “economy” in which leader and followers exchange “currencies” or “capital” which can be amassed or spent by leaders to achieve desired outcomes. “TRANSACTIONAL” THEORIES 거래 이론

  9. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP 1. Builds on man’s need to get a job done and to make a living. 상호간의 필요를 채우는 것 2. Is preoccupied with power and position, politics and perks. 권력과 자리다툼이 난무한다. 3. Is mired in daily affairs. 하루살이 삶. 4. Is short-term and hard-data oriented. 근시안적이고 보이는 성과에 급급하다. 5. Confuses causes and symptoms and concerns itself more with treatment than prevention. 문제의 원인과 증상을 혼동한다. 예방보다는 사후처리에 급급하다.

  10. 6. Focuses on tactical issues. 어떻게 성과를 얻을 것인가에 집중. 7. Relies on human relations to lubricate human interactions. 인간관계에 의지해서 사람을 이용하려 한다. 8. Follows and fulfills role expectations by striving to work effectively within current systems. 주어진 조직안에서 효과적으로 일을 함으로서 직임을 수행하려 한다. 9. Supports structures and systems that reinforce the bottom line, maximize efficiency, and guarantee short-term profits. 중요한 것은 단기적 이익성취와 업무능률이다. 이를 강화하기 위해 주어진 구조에 충실하다.

  11. Newest in the series of follower-centered theories. The leader is the product of the followers. These theories see leadership as the result of willful acts of followers to empower the leaders they select. 추종자의 중요성 강조. “EMPOWERMENT” THEORIES

  12. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1. Builds on man’s need for meaning. 삶의 의미. 2. Is preoccupied with purposes and values, moral and ethics. 목적, 가치관, 도덕, 윤리. 3. Transcends daily affairs. 일상적인 업무나 성과에 연연하지 않는다. 4. Is oriented toward meeting long-term goals without compromising human values and principles. 근시안적인 안목이 아니라 거시적인 목표를 달성하기 위해 노력하되 가치관이나 근본원칙을 고수한다.

  13. 5. Separates causes and symptoms and works at prevention. 문제의 원인과 증상을 명백히 구분하여 처리하되 항상 예방을 위해 노력한다. 6. Values profit as the basis of growth. 사업이익은 개인과 조직발전의 근간으로 중요시한다. 7. Is proactive, catalytic and patient. 매사에 적극 주도적이고, 변화를 일으키는 촉매가 되며, 인내한다. 8. Focuses more on missions and strategies for achieving them. 사명과 전략에 집중.

  14. 9. Makes full use of human resources. 인적자원 최대 활용. 10. Identifies and develops new talent. 새로운 달란트를 발견하고 발전시킨다. 11. Recognize and rewards significant contributions. 수고에 대해 인정하고 보상한다. 12. Designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging. 업무가 의미있고 도전적이 되도록 계획하고 재계획한다. 13. Releases human potential. 잠재력을 발휘하도록 한다.

  15. 14. Models love. 사랑으로 본을 보인다. 15. Leads out in new directions. 새로운 방향으로 이끈다. 16. Aligns internal structures and systems to reinforce overarching values and goals. 전체의 가치관과 목표를 살릴 수 있도록 내부구조나 조직을 조정한다.