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Introduction to Project Management Chapter 5 Managing Project Scope (range). Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, 1e Fuller/Valacich/George. Five Process Phases of Project Management. Initiate Plan Execute Monitor and Control Close. Project Initiation.

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introduction to project management chapter 5 managing project scope range
Introduction to Project ManagementChapter 5 Managing Project Scope (range)

Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, 1e Fuller/Valacich/George

© 2008 Prentice Hall

five process phases of project management
Five Process Phases of Project Management
  • Initiate
  • Plan
  • Execute
  • Monitor and Control
  • Close

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project initiation
Project Initiation
  • The process of authorizing a new or continuing an existing project
  • Four initiation activities:
    • Identifying information systems development projects
    • Classifying and ranking information systems development projects
    • Selecting information systems development projects
    • Establishing the project charter (contract)

© 2008 Prentice Hall

1 identifying information systems development projects
1. Identifying Information Systems Development Projects
  • Identification can be made by:
    • Top management or chief executive officer
      • Strategic focus
    • Steering committee
      • Cross-functional focus
    • User department(s)
      • Tactical focus
    • IT development group or IT management
      • System integration focus

© 2008 Prentice Hall

two basic project planning approaches
Two Basic Project Planning Approaches
  • Isolated – attempts to solve individual organizational problems
    • What procedure (application program) is required to solve this particular problem as it exists today?
    • Dependent on current IT infrastructure

© 2008 Prentice Hall

two basic project planning approaches cont
Two Basic Project Planning Approaches(cont.)
  • Planned – systematic identification of project that will provide solutions today and into the future
    • What information (or data) requirements will satisfy the decision-making needs or business processes of the enterprise today and well into the future?
    • Independent of current IT infrastructure constraints

© 2008 Prentice Hall

corporate strategic planning
Corporate Strategic Planning
  • An ongoing process that defines the mission, objectives, and strategies of an organization.
  • Required if project selection is going to be successful.
  • Three-step process
    • The current organization must be reviewed and understood
    • Management decides on future direction
    • Strategic plan is developed for transition from current to future state

© 2008 Prentice Hall

strategic planning
Strategic Planning

Requirements:

  • Mission Statement
    • Statement that makes it clear what business the company is in
  • Objective statements
    • Series of statements that express an organization’s qualitative and quantitative goals for reaching a desired future position.
    • Sometimes call Critical Success Factors or Corporate Values.
  • Competitive Strategy
    • Method by which an organization attempts to achieve its mission and objectives.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

generic competitive strategy
GenericCompetitive Strategy

© 2008 Prentice Hall

information systems planning
Information Systems Planning
  • An orderly (arranged) means of assessing the information needs of an organization and defining the systems, databases, and technologies that will best satisfy those needs.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

system service request
System Service Request

© 2008 Prentice Hall

parallel activities
Parallel Activities

© 2008 Prentice Hall

planning methods
Planning Methods
  • Top-Down
    • Generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization
  • Bottom-Up
    • Generic information systems planning methodology that identifies and defines information systems development projects based upon solving operational business problems or taking advantage of some business opportunities

© 2008 Prentice Hall

information systems plan outline
Information Systems Plan Outline

© 2008 Prentice Hall

2 classifying and ranking information systems development projects
2. Classifying And Ranking Information Systems Development Projects
  • Completed by top management, steering committee, business units, or information systems development groups
  • Criteria varies among organizations

© 2008 Prentice Hall

business case
Business Case
  • Justification that presents the economic, technical, operational, schedule, legal and contractual, and political factors influencing a proposed information systems project.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

selected feasibility factors
Selected Feasibility Factors
  • Economic
  • Technical
  • Operational
  • Schedule
  • Legal and contractual
  • Political

© 2008 Prentice Hall

economic feasibility
Economic Feasibility
  • Identify the financial benefits and costs associated with a development project
    • Benefits
      • Tangible or intangible
    • Costs
      • Tangible or intangible

© 2008 Prentice Hall

benefits
Benefits
  • Tangible – benefit derived from the creation of an information system that can be measured in dollars and with certainty.
        • Cost reduction and avoidance; error reduction; increased flexibility; increased speed of activity; improvement of management planning and control; opening new markets and increasing sales opportunities
  • Intangible – benefit derived from the creation of an information system that cannot be easily measured in dollars or with certainty.
        • Competitive necessity; increased organizational flexibility; increased employee morale; promotion of organizational learning and understanding; more timely information.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

cost types
Cost Types
  • Tangible cost
    • Cost associated with an information system that can be measured in dollars and with certainty.
  • Intangible cost
    • Cost associated with an information system that cannot be easily measured in terms of dollars or with certainty.
  • Recurring cost
    • Cost resulting from the ongoing evolution and use of a system.
  • One-Time cost
    • Cost associated with project start-up and development or system start-up

© 2008 Prentice Hall

cost benefit analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • The use of a variety of analysis techniques for determining the financial feasibility of a project
    • Present Value
    • Discount Rate
    • Net Present Value
    • Break-even Analysis

© 2008 Prentice Hall

technical feasibility
Technical Feasibility
  • Process of assessing the development organization's ability to construct a proposed system.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

technical project risk assessment factors
Technical Project Risk Assessment Factors
  • Project Size
  • Project Structure
  • Development Group
  • User Group

© 2008 Prentice Hall

risk assessment matrix
Risk Assessment Matrix

© 2008 Prentice Hall

potential technical risks
Potential Technical Risks
  • Failure to attain expected benefits from the project
  • Inaccurate project cost estimates
  • Inaccurate project duration estimates
  • Failure to achieve adequate system performance levels
  • Failure to adequately integrate the new system with existing hardware, software, or organizational procedures

© 2008 Prentice Hall

operational feasibility
Operational Feasibility
  • Process of assessing the degree to which a proposed system will solve business problems or takes advantage of business opportunities
    • What impact will the proposed system have on the organization’s structures and procedures?

© 2008 Prentice Hall

schedule feasibility
Schedule Feasibility
  • Process of assessing the degree to which the potential time frame and completion dates for all major activities within a project meet organizational deadlines and constraints for affecting change.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

legal and contractual feasibility
Legal and Contractual Feasibility
  • Process of assessing potential legal and contractual ramifications تشعب due to the construction of a system.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

political feasibility
Political Feasibility
  • Process of evaluating how key stakeholders within the organization view the proposed system

© 2008 Prentice Hall

popular selection methods
Popular Selection Methods
  • Value Chain Analysis
    • The process of analyzing an organization's activities to determine where value is added to products and/or services and the costs incurred for doing so
  • Multi-Criteria Analysis
    • A project selection method that uses weighted scoring for a variety of criteria to contrast alternative projects or system features.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

value chain analysis
Value Chain Analysis

© 2008 Prentice Hall

4 establish a project charter
4. Establish a Project Charter
  • A short document prepared for the customer during project initiation that describes what the project will deliver and outlines generally at a high level all work required to complete the project.
  • Typically contains:
    • Project title and date of authorization (approval)
    • Project manager name and contact information
    • Customer name and contact information
    • Projected (anticipated) start and completion dates
    • Key stakeholders, project roles, and responsibilities
    • Project objectives and description
    • Key assumptions or approach
    • Signature section for key stakeholders

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope planning
Project Scope Planning
  • Process of progressively elaborating and documenting the project work plan in order to effectively manage a project.
  • Occurs once a project has been formally selected for development.

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope planning activities
Project Scope Planning Activities
  • Project workbook created
  • Project scope statement written
  • Baseline project plan is developed

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project workbook
Project Workbook
  • Serves as the central repository for all project-related documents and information
  • Contains
    • all project correspondence (mail), inputs, outputs, procedures, and standards established by the project team
  • Workbook can be paper or electronic

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope statement
Project Scope Statement
  • Document prepared for the customer that describes what the project will deliver and outlines generally at a high level all work required to complete the project
  • Addresses:
    • What problem or opportunity does the project address?
    • What are the quantifiable results to be achieved?
    • What needs to be done?
    • How will success be measured?
    • How will the end of the project be identified?

© 2008 Prentice Hall

baseline project plan
Baseline Project Plan
  • Documents the best estimate of a project's scope, benefits, costs, risks, and resource requirements
  • Four sections:
    • Introduction
    • System Description
    • Feasibility Assessment
    • Management Issues

© 2008 Prentice Hall

baseline project plan introduction
Baseline Project Plan Introduction
  • Provides a brief overview of the entire document and outlines a recommended course of action for the project

© 2008 Prentice Hall

baseline project plan system description
Baseline Project Plan System Description
  • Documents possible alternative solutions in addition to the one deemed (considered) most appropriate for the given situation

© 2008 Prentice Hall

baseline project plan feasibility assessment
Baseline Project PlanFeasibility Assessment
  • Project costs and benefits, technical difficulties, and other such concerns are outlined
  • Gantt charts and network diagrams illustrate high-level project schedules

© 2008 Prentice Hall

baseline project plan management issues
Baseline Project PlanManagement Issues
  • Documents management concerns related to the project
  • Typical issues include:
    • Team configuration and management
    • Communication plan
    • Project standards and procedures
    • Other project-specific topics

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope definition
Project Scope Definition
  • Process of subdividing the major project deliverables – as identified in the project scope statement – into smaller, more manageable activities in order to make more accurate cost, task duration, and resource estimates

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope verification
Project Scope Verification
  • Process of obtaining formal acceptance of a project’s scope from the project stakeholders

© 2008 Prentice Hall

project scope change control
Project Scope Change Control
  • Formal process for assuring that only agreed- upon changes are made to the project’s scope
  • Submitted (proposed) change request should address:
    • Project specifications
    • Project schedules (calender)
    • Budgets
    • Resources

© 2008 Prentice Hall

scope creep
Scope Creep (يتغير شكله)
  • Progressive, uncontrolled increase in project scope

© 2008 Prentice Hall

questions
Questions?

© 2008 Prentice Hall