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Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, 1200-1500. AP World History. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200-1600. A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia Mongols were strongly hierarchical. Mongols had complex federations tied to together by marriage alliances.
AP World History
A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia
Khubilai Khan (Grandson of Genghis) finished the conquest of China, created the Yuan dynasty, claimed the title of Great Khan, assumed supremacy over the other Mongol khanates.
Mongols fighting the Russians at the Battle of the Kalka River. Ended Kievan Russia rule of modern day Russia.
After the death of Genghis, the empire splits into the four different Khanates – Great Khan, Golden Khan, Il-Khan, Jagadai
Most Mongols were expert horse archers. Asian bow was more superior –could shoot 1/3 farther than their enemies’ bows.
Mongols fighting the Teutonic Knights in Germany. Ogodei dies and the Mongols return to China to elect a new Khan.
Route of Marco Polo along the reopened Silk Road. He stimulated the European desire to explore the east.
Illustration of the spread of the Bubonic Plague which originated in southwestern China. Mongols and flea infested rats carried it along trade routes.
A. Mongol Rivalry
The Jagadai Khanate rose in the 14th century with the decline of the Golden Horde and the Il-Khan.(modern day Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan)
Timur built the Jagadai Khanate. Ethnically he was a Turk, not a Mongol, so he could not be Khan.
Mongols were not only great conquers, they allowed their subjects to pursue intellectual interests.
Muslim historian, Rashid al-Din’s, history of the world – Included history of Europe and China.
Under Mongol leadership, the Muslim scholar Nasir al-Din made great strides in astronomy – small circles rotating within a large circle.
A. Russia and Rule from Afar
Prince Alexander Nevskii of Novogorod allied with the Mongols because Russia would be destroyed if he resisted, essentially saving Russia. (right - example of Russian man at arms)
Depiction of Russian Prince Alexander Nevskii preparing for battle against the German Teutonics in the 1930s Russian film of the same name. (Propaganda)
Ivan “the Terrible” – First Russian prince to fight the Golden Horde. He adopted the title of Tsar.
Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II on his way to conquer the Byzantine empire. (notice the 2-ton cannon)
A. The Yuan Empire, 1279-1368
Mongols unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Song empires into the Yuan dynasty. (unified China as we know it)
A. Ming China on a Mongol Foundation
Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, 1231-1500