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Beyond data models (what we can do with vocabularies/ontologies alone)

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  1. Beyond data models(what we can do with vocabularies/ontologies alone) David Leal david.leal@caesarsystems.co.uk

  2. Semantic Web technologies • RDF (Resource Description Framework) • making statements on the Web • http://www.w3.org/RDF/ • N3 (Notation 3) • a simple way of writing down an RDF statement • http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Notation3.html A opportunity to: • record information more simply • enable others to use our concepts • use the concepts of others

  3. believes Jane N3 :Janet :loves :John . Getting started RDF diagram John Janet loves :Jane :believes { }

  4. identify the people identify the human relationships Getting started namespaces @prefix people: http://www.friends-are-us.com/registry/ . @prefix relationships: http://www.institute-of_relationships/vocabulary/ . people:Janet relationship:loves people:John .

  5. This is what the EXPRESS data model + part 21 / 28 file methodology achieves. What we do well • Blobs • Encapsulate the data that defines the shape • Encapsulate the data that is the specification of the part. • Encapulate the data that is the specification of the analysis. • The data inside the blob and the data outside the blob are separate – what is inside can be specified in a contract. • It is “data push” – I tell you what you need to know. The blob can be an e-mail attachment – it can be downloaded by FTP.

  6. This is why we have different types of blob – AP 203, AP209, AP210, AP214, … When iswhat we do welluseful? • Command driven processes • I tell you what to do, and what you need to know to do it. • Processes where the data within the blob can be easily defined • Shape information is our success story – it has a well defined scope • Engineering analysis has not taken off – the scope is fuzzy and much larger • Processes where the blob has a particular destination system • CAD, CAE, CAM, PDM You need to know the type of destination system is before selecting the type of the blob.

  7. The Semantic Web provides a technology which can cope with this. What we cannot do yet • Enable a user to publish data on the Web – where the user makes his or her own decision about what data are published • Somebody else can use the data, if they want to. • Enable a user to use SC4 standards for some data and other standards for other data • There cannot be two-way links between objects in a blob defined by a STEP AP and an IFC or OpenGIS object • All we can do is make external references by “magic strings” • Enable groups of users to extent SC4 standards as they wish • All we can do is allow user defined “magic strings” In the real world, data is defined using many different vocabularies – the SC4 vocabulary is one of many.

  8. @prefix part: http://www.tc-184-sc4.org/10303/-1234/tech/vocabulary/ . URI of a design URI of a batch of material URI of an individual part URI of a vocabulary about parts Tracking back materials information @prefix item: http://www.fred.bloggs.com/items . @prefix model: http://www.fred.bloggs.com/models . @prefix alcoa: http://www.alcoa.com/batches . item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 .

  9. a classification with respect to a standard the actual manufacturing process a vocabulary for manufacturing processes – perhaps not ISO 10303 Tracking back materials information item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 . alcoa:PQR-12345-06 mat:materialProductType mil5:XYZ2048-asSheet ; mat:manufacturingProcess alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 .

  10. facility that performed the process more manufacturing vocabulary other ISO committees work on time generic work flow vocabulary Tracking back materials information item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 . alcoa:PQR-12345-06 mat:materialProductType mil5:XYZ2048-asSheet ; mat:manufacturingProcess alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 . alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 mat:performedBy alcoa:LineA ; act:startTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T09:00” ] ; act:endTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T17:00” ] .

  11. a standard specimen type a use of our vocabulary in a different environment Our vocabularies cannot be re-used by others – our data models cannot be Tracking back materials information item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 . alcoa:PQR-12345-06 mat:materialProductType mil5:XYZ2048-asSheet ; mat:manufacturingProcess alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 . alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 mat:performedBy alcoa:LineA ; act:startTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T09:00” ] ; act:endTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T17:00” ] . alcoa:specimen-67890 part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 ; part:toDesign test:SpecimenTypeXYZ .

  12. more generic workflow vocabulary a standard test method a generic measurement and observations vocabulary Tracking back materials information item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 . alcoa:PQR-12345-06 mat:materialProductType mil5:XYZ2048-asSheet ; mat:manufacturingProcess alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 . alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 mat:performedBy alcoa:LineA ; act:startTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T09:00” ] ; act:endTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T17:00” ] . alcoa:specimen-67890 part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 ; part:toDesign test:SpecimenTypeXYZ . alcoa:Test-67890 obs:onSpecimen alcoa:specimen-67890 ; act:toProcedure test:MaterialTestTypePQR ; obs:givesResult alcoa:Result-67890 .

  13. a statement with provenance Tracking back materials information item:98-1234 part:toDesign model:ABC456_v3 ; part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 . alcoa:PQR-12345-06 mat:materialProductType mil5:XYZ2048-asSheet ; mat:manufacturingProcess alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 . alcoa:LineA-2006-02-13 mat:performedBy alcoa:LineA ; act:startTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T09:00” ] ; act:endTime [ iso8601:utc “2006-02-12T17:00” ] . alcoa:specimen-67890 part:madeFromBatch alcoa:PQR-12345-06 ; part:toDesign test:SpecimenTypeXYZ . alcoa:Test-67890 obs:onSpecimen alcoa:specimen-67890 ; act:toProcedure test:MaterialTestTypePQR ; obs:givesResult alcoa:Result-67890 . alcoa:Result-67890 { alcoa:specimen-67890 mat:compressiveYieldStress [ iso:MPA “201.3” ] }

  14. Many vocabularies – only a few are within the scope of SC4 personnel observations inventory workflow material test units material handbook product design GIS electrical networks manufacture earth sciences maintain life cycle assessment

  15. Data models • Data models are good • they specify exactly what data should be supplied for a particular activity • they have constraints to ensure that the data is complete and correct • But • different activities need different data • different activities have different ideas about what “complete” means • So • There are lots of similar but overlapping data models

  16. Vocabularies/ontologies • Vocabularies/ontologies are good • precise statements can be made about things • different vocabularies can be used together to say what you want • But • there is no constraint on what is said • you may not say all that needs to be said • So • vocabularies are not enough to specify the data flow between activities • replacing data models with vocabularies + rules is a research activity

  17. What next • We need vocabularies/ontologies as well as data models • cannot be generated automatically from out EXPRESS schemas • people have to read the words • real work – but if we don’t do it others will duplicate what we have done • We need to address the type of business problem for which a data model is not the solution, but a standard vocabulary is • Other standards committees have similar problems • data models in UML, or XML Schema • electrical networks • GIS • building and construction • materials information, • earth sciences

  18. Concretely • Make a start with vocabularies corresponding to ISO 10303 module ARMs • Publish as a TS • “Gellish” (proposal from the Netherlands) is a possible addition to this vocabulary • Look at vocabularies from other standards • Agree owl:sameAs statements – a “same as” is a success! • Find who’s vocabularies we can use, and do more in that area. If two data models overlap it is a problem – which do you use? If two vocabularies overlap it is a success – you have synonyms