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Islam Expands. Chapter 10 Section 2. Muhammad’s Successors. Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph Caliph = “successor” or “deputy” New political formation = “caliphate”.

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islam expands

Islam Expands

Chapter 10 Section 2

muhammad s successors
Muhammad’s Successors
  • Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one
  • Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph
    • Caliph = “successor” or “deputy”
    • New political formation = “caliphate”

Muhammad’s father-in-law, Abu Bakr, was named the khalifa (caliph) or “Successor”

rightly guided caliphs
Rightly Guided Caliphs
  • “Rightly Guided Caliphs” = the first four caliphs
    • Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
    • All personally had known Muhammad
    • Known as “rightly guided” because they used Muhammad’s actions and the Qur’an as guides for leadership
concept of jihad
Concept of Jihad
  • jihad means “striving” – inner struggle against evil
    • Also used to mean armed struggle against unbelievers
  • Abu-Bakr used jihad to encourage & justify the expansion of Islam
muslim conquests
Muslim Conquests
  • Muslims eventually conquered Syria, lower Egypt, Sassanid Empire (Persia)
  • Stretched from Atlantic Ocean in west to Indus River in the east
  • Treatment of Conquered Peoples
    • Religious freedom (Qur’an forbids forced conversion)
    • Christians & Jews were “people of the book”
    • Non-Muslims paid poll tax & certain restrictions
reasons for success
Reasons for Success
  • 1) Desire to spread their faith
    • Victories seen as sign of Allah’s support
    • Fought to defend Islam
  • 2) Armies were well disciplined & expertly commanded
  • 3) Non-followers of Christianity & Zoroastrianism were persecuted by Byzantines & Sassanid Empires, so they welcomed Muslim invaders
internal conflict crisis
Internal Conflict = Crisis
  • Difficult to keep unified rule
  • Uthman murdered – civil war erupts – struggle for power
    • Ali (relative of Muhammad) v. Muawiya (governor of Syria)
    • Ali was assassinated
  • Umayyadfamily came to power
    • Moved capital to Damascus
    • Surrounded with wealth, ceremony
civil war the umayyads
Civil War – the Umayyads
  • Umayyads came to power & moved Muslim capital to Damascus
  • Split between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims
split of islam
Split of Islam
  • Division over Umayyad rule, office of caliph
  • The Shi’a believed the caliph should be descendant of Muhammad
  • The Sunni believed that a caliph could be a ruler who followed the Sunna (Muhammad’s example), not necessarily a descendant
  • Both accused of misinterpreting the Qur’an
  • The Sufirejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads
growth of muslim empire
Growth of Muslim Empire
  • Umayyad caliphate set up in Spain
    • Berbers (Muslims from N. Africa) also settled in Spain
  • AbbasidsConsolidate Power - replaced the Umayyads as ruler of the empire
    • Moved the capital to Baghdad (key for trade)
    • Developed strong bureaucracy
rival groups divide muslim lands
Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands
  • Abbasids failed to keep control
  • Independent Muslim states arose
    • For example, the Fatimid Caliphate (Shi’a who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima)
  • The Abbasid caliphate was connected to the independent Muslims through religion, trade, and economy
muslim trade
Muslim Trade
  • Muslim Empire had access to both land and sea trade
  • Single language (Arabic) and single currency (dinar) made travel & trade easier
  • Banks offered sakks, or letters of credit, to merchants
    • Merchant with sakk from one city could exchange it for cash in another city
    • In English, pronounced “check”
muslim culture

Muslim Culture

Chapter 10 Section 3

muslim society
Muslim Society
  • Cultural traditions combined with Arabic culture
  • Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge

Today’s Goal: Explain the contributions of Muslim culture to the arts, literature, science, math, and philosophy

muslim cities
Muslim Cities
  • Damascus, Córdoba, Cairo, Jerusalem
  • Cities symbolized strength of caliphate
  • Baghdad (Abbasid capital)
    • Extensive planning
    • Circular design of three protective walls
    • Palace of marble and stone at center
    • Main streets lined w/shops
social classes women
Social Classes & Women
  • Upper class = Muslim at birth
  • Second class = converts to Islam
  • Third class = “protected peoples”
  • Lowest class = slaves
  • Qur’an stated men and women were equal in faith
    • shari’a gave women more economic & property rights
    • Yet still subservient to men
    • Some women were educated, participated in public life
muslim scholarship knowledge
Muslim Scholarship & Knowledge
  • The Prophet emphasized learning
  • House of Wisdom = library, academy, & translation center in Baghdad
    • Scholars of various cultures worked together to translate texts
muslim literature
Muslim Literature
  • Qur’an is standard for all Arabic literature
    • Poets praised the Prophet, Islam, & caliphs
    • Nature & pleasures of life
  • Ten Thousand and One Nights
    • Collection of fairy tales, parables, legends
muslim philosophy
Muslim Philosophy
  • Preserved works of Greek philosophers
  • “Ideal Man” – blend of cultures

The ideal and morally perfect man should be of East Persian derivation, Arabic in faith, of Iraqi education, a Hebrew in astuteness, a disciple of Christ in conduct, as pious as a Greek monk, a Greek in the individual sciences, an Indian in the interpretation of all mysteries, but lastly and especially a Sufi in his whole spiritual life.

Ikhwan as-Safa, The World of Islam

muslim art architecture
Muslim Art & Architecture
  • Muslims discouraged images of living things
  • Calligraphy  beautiful handwriting
  • Geometric patterns in woodwork, glass, ceramics, textiles
  • Architecture represents cultural blending
    • Great Mosque of Damascus – dome & vaulted ceiling
    • Great Mosque of Córdoba – two tiers of arches to support ceiling
muslim medicine
Muslim Medicine
  • Persian scholar al-Razi (Rhazes) – great physician
    • Comprehensive Book, Treatise on Smallpox & Measles
    • Patients recover quickly if breathed clean air
muslim math science
Muslim Math & Science
  • Solve problems by conducting experiments in lab settings
  • Al-Khwarizmi  al-jabr (algebra)
  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)  Optics
    • Revolutionary ideas about vision

Astronomy  needed for religious purposes

    • Muslim observatories
    • Astrolabe (navigation)
    • Armillary sphere