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FRAMING THE ISSUES. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION (I.E., SOCIAL CHANGE, EMPLOYMENT, CITIZENSHIP, ETC.)? COMPETING FRAMEWORKS: LEGAL POLITICAL SOCIOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL ECONOMIC IDEOLOGICAL. FRAMING THE ISSUES. POWER RELATIONS: WHO DESCRIBES THE ISSUES AND CONTEXT? HOW?

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framing the issues
FRAMING THE ISSUES
  • WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION (I.E., SOCIAL CHANGE, EMPLOYMENT, CITIZENSHIP, ETC.)?
  • COMPETING FRAMEWORKS:
        • LEGAL
        • POLITICAL
        • SOCIOLOGICAL
        • PEDAGOGICAL
        • ECONOMIC
        • IDEOLOGICAL
framing the issues1
FRAMING THE ISSUES
  • POWER RELATIONS:
        • WHO DESCRIBES THE ISSUES AND CONTEXT?
        • HOW?
        • BASED ON WHAT?
        • SUPPORTED BY WHOM?
        • TO WHAT END?
  • WHAT TYPES OF DATA ARE CONSIDERED RELEVANT? HOW DO, OR CAN, WE COMPARE SYSTEMS?
  • THE PROBLEMATIC OF (NOT) COLLECTING DATA BASED ON IDENTITY
  • QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
framing the issues2
FRAMING THE ISSUES
  • WHAT RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE?
  • HOW HAS EDUCATIONAL CHANGE HAPPENED?
  • THE SOCIO-LINGUSTICS OF EDUCATION
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN: SCHOOLS TODAY
  • WHERE DO STAKEHOLDER-GROUPS STAND? WHY?
  • WHAT IS THE CURRICULUM BASED ON?
  • HOW DO WE TEACH TEACHERS?
policy reform context

ELEMENTARY/SECONDARY LEVEL

  • POLARIZATION OF SUPPORT FOR REFORMS
  • LABOUR STRIFE
  • CURRICULUM
  • ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
  • FUNDING
  • GOVERNANCE RE-STRUCTURING
  • SPECIAL EDUCATION
  • PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
  • ANTI-VIOLENCE AND ZERO TOLERANCE
  • PRIVATE SCHOOL ENROLMENT EDGING UP
  • UNCERTAINTY ABOUT CHARTER/PRIVATE SCHOOLS
  • TEACHER SHORTAGE
  • ADMINISTRATOR SHORTAGE
POLICY/REFORM CONTEXT
policy reform context1
POLICY/REFORM CONTEXT

POSTSECONDARY LEVEL

  • POSTSECONDARY TUITION INCREASES
  • VACILLATING ENROLLMENTS
  • FORECASTED FACULTY SHORTAGE
  • POTENTIAL FOR PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES
  • CONCERN ABOUT "BRAIN DRAIN" AND RESEARCH FUNDING
  • TECHNOLOGY AND THE WEB
understanding diversity and identity
UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY AND IDENTITY
  • "NEVER JUDGE ANOTHER MAN UNTIL YOU HAVE WALKED A MILE IN HIS MOCCASINS" (FIRST NATIONS PROVERB)
  • "IF THE WORLD WERE A VILLAGE“… WHO WOULD BE THE MINORITY?
  • THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY; UNDERSTANDING “LIVED” AND “SHIFTING” EXPERIENCE
  • "UNPACKING THE KNAPSACK“ (McINTOSH); WHITENESS AND RACE
understanding diversity and identity1
UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY AND IDENTITY
  • DIFFERING VIEWS, APPROACHES AND LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING
  • CAN SCHOOLS BE AHEAD OF SOCIETY? ARE THEY "SOCIAL-CHANGE AGENTS"?
  • “THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE” (McLUHAN) AND “MANUFACTURING CONSENT” (CHOMSKY)
  • RE-THINKING CITIZENSHIP
  • HOW IS ACCOUNTABILITY MEASURED?
  • CAN THERE BE EXCELLENCE WITHOUT EQUITY?
policymaking considerations
POLICYMAKING CONSIDERATIONS
  • PARTICIPATION
  • REPRESENTATION
  • FUNDING
  • OPPOSITION
  • SHORT-TERM GAIN VS. LONG-TERM BENEFIT
  • ELECTIONS AND VOTERS
  • STUDENTS
  • LEGAL
  • MEDIA
  • SUPPORT FROM BROADER SECTOR
  • TIMING
  • POWER: DEMOCRACY?
  • BUILDING COALITIONS
  • PROCESS; CONSULTATION; NEGOTIATION
diversity in toronto schools
DIVERSITY IN TORONTO SCHOOLS
  • 300,000 STUDENTS IN 558 SCHOOLS (CANADA’S LARGEST)
  • ESL: 47% OF S. AND 41% OF E. STUDENTS
  • MORE THAN 100 LANGUAGES REPRESENTED
  • 47,000 (24%) E. STUDENTS BORN OUTSIDE OF CANADA (>175 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES)
  • 11,500 (12%) OF S. STUDENTS IN CANADA < THREE YEARS
  • APPROX. 15% OF S. STUDENTS LIVE WITHOUT PARENTS
  • SIGNIFICANT REFUGEE POPULATION
  • RM: APPROX. 53% OF STUDENTS AND14% OF TEACHERS
the role of racial minority teachers in anti racist education are
THE ROLE OF RACIAL MINORITY TEACHERS IN ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION (ARE)

(CANADIAN ETHNIC STUDIES, (1996), 28(2):126-138)

  • FEW STUDIES RE: THE CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN TEACHER RACE AND STUDENT OUTCOMES
  • "RACIALIZING" EDUCATION IS OPPOSED BY MANY
  • IS EDUCATION NEUTRAL? DOES "MERIT"EXIST?
  • "EMPLOYMENT EQUITY"? "EDUCATION EQUITY"?
  • SEPARATION VS. INTEGRATION VS. ASSIMILATION
  • DIFFERENCE/SIMILARITY BETWEEN ETHNIC AND RACIAL ORIGIN; "MULTICULTURALISM MYTH"
the role of racial minority teachers in anti racist education
THE ROLE OF RACIAL MINORITY TEACHERS IN ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION
  • AFFIRMATIVE ACTION FOR WOMEN AND EMPLOYMENT EQUITY FOR RACIAL MINORITIES
  • CONNECTION BETWEEN RACIAL MINORITY TEACHERS AND ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION
  • SIX ROLES EXIST FOR TEACHERS IN ARE:

1) CULTURAL COMPATIBILITY;

2) DE-MYSTIFYING THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM;

3) DEVELOPMENT OF ATTITUDES;

4) EXPRESSING LIVED EXPERIENCES;

5) "CONNECTING" WITH THE STUDENTS;

6) "CONNECTING" WITH THE COMMUNITIES.

research questions
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • 1) IS TEACHER RACE MORE IMPORTANT FOR SOME GROUPS THAN OTHERS?

2) HOW IS SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RACE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT?

3) WHAT IS THE ROLE OF WHITE TEACHERS IN ARE?

4) WHAT NEEDS TO BE LEARNED ABOUT TEACHER RACE IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EQUITY INITIATIVES?

different perceptions of race in education racial minority rm and white teachers
DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF RACE IN EDUCATION: RACIAL MINORITY (RM) AND WHITE TEACHERS

(CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, (1997), 1(WINTER):68-81)

  • ANALYSIS OF PERCEPTIONS OF WHITE AND RACIAL MINORITY TEACHERS RE: ARE IN THE TORONTO BOARD OF EDUCATION (TBE)
  • CONTEXT: BURGEONING DIVERSITY IN TORONTO
  • RESEARCH METHODS:
      • APPROXIMATELY 25% OF ALL RACIAL MINORITY SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE TBE INTERVIEWED (22) AND SURVEYED (35);
      • 60 WHITE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS SURVEYED
different perceptions of race in education racial minority and white teachers
DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF RACE IN EDUCATION: RACIAL MINORITY AND WHITE TEACHERS
  • FINDINGS ON FIVE TOPICS WHERE WHITE AND RM TEACHERS HAVE DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES:
  • 1) VIEWS OF ANTI-RACIST EDUCATION
  • 2) RM TEACHERS AS ROLE MODELS
  • 3) ROLE OF PRINCIPALS
  • 4) SUPPORT FOR EMPLOYMENT EQUITY
  • 5) THE TREATMENT OF RM TEACHERS
different perceptions of race in education racial minority and white teachers1
DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF RACE IN EDUCATION: RACIAL MINORITY AND WHITE TEACHERS
  • IN GENERAL, RM TEACHERS FACE GREATER BARRIERS THAN WHITE TEACHERS, BARRIERS THAT HAMPER IMPLEMENTATION OF ARE
  • VALIDATING "LIVED" EXPERIENCES AROUND RACE IS KEY TO ENHANCING THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE
  • STRONG UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP IDENTITY FORMATION IS NECESSARY TO UNDERPIN INCLUSIVITY AND EQUITY IN EDUCATION
different perceptions of race in education racial minority and white teachers2
DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF RACE IN EDUCATION: RACIAL MINORITY AND WHITE TEACHERS
  • TEACHERS MUST CRITICALLY QUESTION THEIR TEACHING APPROACHES IN ORDER TO RESPOND TO THE PLURALITY OF STUDENT NEEDS AND EXPERIENCES
  • THE SYSTEMIC NATURE OF DISCRIMINATION MUST BE MORE CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
stuck in the middle how principals manage equity related change
STUCK IN THE MIDDLE?: HOW PRINCIPALS MANAGE EQUITY- RELATED CHANGE

(EDUCATION CANADA (1997), 35(1):42-49)

1) WHAT IS THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE PRINCIPAL IN EQUITY-BASED POLICIES?

2) WHAT STRUCTURAL BARRIERS PREVENT THE PRINCIPAL FROM EXERCISING LEADERSHIP?

3) WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF THE "LIVED EXPERIENCES" OF PRINCIPALS ON HER/HIS LEADERSHIP?

4) WHAT CAN BE DONE TO ENSURE MORE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF EQUITY-BASED POLICIES?

stuck in the middle
STUCK IN THE MIDDLE?
  • THE NEED TO MAKE THE AGENDA EXPLICIT
  • "BIG PICTURE" IS AS IMPORTANT AS UNDERSTANDING ISSUES LOCALLY
  • KEY FACTORS:

1) COMMITMENT TO EQUITY

2) PREPARATION

3) LEADERSHIP

4) UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITY OF EQUITY ISSUES

5) THE ROLE OF MEDIATOR

6) RACIAL REPRESENTATION

stuck in the middle1

PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE:

  • EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS BE REQUIRED TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE EQUITY STRATEGIES

2) QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE

MEASURES/STANDARDS/TOOLS NEED TO BE DEVELOPED

3) PRINCIPALS TO BE GIVEN 5-YEAR CONTRACTS;

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION ALIGNED TO EQUITY

4) PRINCIPALS SHOULD BE REQUIRED TO DEVELOP ANNUAL EQUITY/DIVERSITY PLANS

5) COMMITMENT TO RECRUITING, HIRING, MENTORING AND PROMOTING RACIAL MINORITY CANDIDATES

6) REMOVE PRINCIPALS FROM THE SAME BARGAINING UNIT/FEDERATION AS THE TEACHERS

STUCK IN THE MIDDLE?
institutional barriers to the implementation of are
INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ARE

(CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND FOUNDATIONS, (1997), 12(1):46-68)

  • STUDY OF INSTITUTIONAL/STRUCTURAL BARRIERS
  • FIVE BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ARE

1) LACK OF VISION

2) DECENTRALIZED NATURE OF SCHOOL SYSTEM

3) LACK OF RMs IN KEY POSITIONS

4) COMPARTMENTALIZATION OF INTERESTS

5) INFORMAL RESISTANCE TO RACIAL EQUALITY

institutional barriers to the implementation of are1
INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ARE
  • BARRIERS ARE INTER-RELATED
  • DISPROPORTIONATE EFFECT
  • IMPORTANCE OF PERCEPTIONS
  • IMPLICATION OF WHITES RE: RACIAL IDENTITY
  • "GLASS-BOWL" EFFECT
institutional barriers to the implementation of are2
INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ARE
  • FURTHER AREAS OF RESEARCH:

1) INFORMAL NETWORKS IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS;

2) UNDERSTANDING THE ANONYMITY OF THE DECISIONMAKING PROCESS IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS.

transforming the institution or institutionalizing the transformation
TRANSFORMING THE INSTITUTION, OR INSTITUTIONALIZING THE TRANSFORMATION?

(McGILL JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, (1999), 34 (1):49-77)

  • STUDY OF THE FACTORS WHICH CHARACTERIZE THE RESISTENCE TO EQUITY-BASED INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
  • CONTEXT:

1) DISCUSSING RACE IS PROBLEMATIC

2) IDENTITY FORMATION IS EQUALLY PROBLEMATIC

3) UNEVEN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

4) COMPLAINTS THAT SYSTEM IS NOT INCLUSIVE

transforming the institution or institutionalizing the transformation1
TRANSFORMING THE INSTITUTION, OR INSTITUTIONALIZING THE TRANSFORMATION?
  • THREE KEY FINDINGS:

1) THE EVOLUTIONARY NATURE OF ATTEMPTS TO DEAL WITH EQUITY ISSUES

2) THE SYSTEMIC NATURE OF DISCRIMINATION

3) THE INABILITY TO CLEARLY DEFINE ARE AND EQUITY, THUS IMPEDING THE CREATION OF A COHERENT VISION

  • INCONSISTENCY RE: UNDERSTANDING OF KEY EQUITY CONCEPTS; NO SHARED VISION
  • THE COMMITMENT TO ACCOUNTABILITY, RE: EQUITY, IS FRAUGHT WITH PROBLEMS AND OBSTACLES
transforming the institution or institutionalizing the transformation2
TRANSFORMING THE INSTITUTION, OR INSTITUTIONALIZING THE TRANSFORMATION?
  • TRADITIONAL STYLE OF LEADERSHIP
  • IMPLEMENTATION HAS NOT BEEN EFFECTIVE
  • POWER AND PRIVILEGE ACCORDED WHITES
  • MAPPING OUT A STRATEGY FOR CHANGE IS CHALLENGED AT MANY LEVELS
anecdote
ANECDOTE
  • HUMAN RIGHTS CASE RELATING TO SYSTEMIC RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION
  • INSTITUTIONAL REACTION
  • HUMAN AND FINANCIAL COSTS
  • WHITENESS + ACCOUNTABILITY
  • IMPACT ON THE SYSTEM
  • ARDUOUS, PROTRACTED STRUGGLE TO RESOLVE ISSUES
policy research questions
POLICY/RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1) HOW CAN THE POLICY PROCESS BE MADE MORE TRANSPARENT, DEMOCRATIC AND INCLUSIVE?

2) HOW CAN WE MORE EFFECTIVELY LINK THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY?

3) WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS LEADING TO IMPROVED STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT?

4) WHAT IS THE ROLE OF RESEARCHERS IN ADVANCING QUALITY EDUCATIONAL POLICY ANALYSIS?

policy research questions1
POLICY/RESEARCH QUESTIONS

5) HOW CAN "ACCOUNTABILITY" BE RE-POSITIONED/RE- UNDERSTOOD IN RELATION TO EQUITY/INCLUSIVITY?

6) WHAT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES/STRATEGIES SHOULD BE EXPLORED/REINFORCED?

7) WHAT IS THE ROLE AND EFFECT OF GRASS-ROOTS ORGANIZATIONS IN/ON PUBLIC EDUCATION?

8) WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF "GLOBALIZATION " ON EQUITY-BASED OR REFORM-BASED EDUCATION?

9) HOW DO COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGIES SHAPE EQUITY-BASED/REFORM-BASED EDUCATION?