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Chapter 22 The Great War. The American People , 6 th ed. I. The Early War Years. Causes of the War. Improved technology and industrialization also fostered a new sense of nationalism among the countries of the world

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chapter 22 the great war

Chapter 22The Great War

The American People, 6th ed.

causes of the war
Causes of the War
  • Improved technology and industrialization also fostered a new sense of nationalism among the countries of the world
  • A growing rivalry over European trade, colonies, and spheres of influence in Africa and Asia
  • The large European powers began an industrial arms race followed by an intricate system of national treaties and alliances that would compel most of the world to declare war at the slightest incident
  • The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary delivered such an incident
new military technology
New Military Technology
  • The new industrialism meant new advances in the science of warfare
  • Rapid-firing rifles, improved explosives, motorized Gatlin guns, and enormous artillery pieces
  • Airplanes, poison gas and trench warfare strategies
neutrality
Neutrality
  • Despite President Wilson’s call for American neutrality, nationalism inherent in the numbers of American immigrants tipped the balance in the Allies favor
  • Ultimately, most Americans believed that France and England were fighting to preserve human culture against barbarians; remaining neutral would not happen
deciding for war
Deciding for War
  • Wilson’s reelection in 1916 seemed to be a national mandate for further attempts at American neutrality
  • Wilson outlined a plan for “peace without victory”
  • The German leaders thought they could win a world war and rejected Wilson’s attempt at negotiation
  • Interception of the Zimmerman telegram virtually guaranteed the entry of America into the war
a patriotic crusade
A Patriotic Crusade
  • For most Americans, the war was a remote ideal
  • George Creel headed a Committee of Public Information designed to flood American with nationalistic propaganda about the seriousness of the situation in an anti-German context
  • The Espionage, Sedition, and Trading With the Enemy Acts limited the freedoms of Americans
  • Prompted the early Civil Liberties Bureau
over there
Over There
  • The United States entered the World War in the spring of 1917 after three years of European fighting
  • General “Black Jack” Pershing insisted that American troops be segregated from French and British divisions
  • The U.S. entered the war late and had lost little compared to Britain and France
a global pandemic
A Global Pandemic
  • In the fall of 1919 brought the end of the Great War and the beginning of the Spanish Flu epidemic that claimed the lives of over 43,000 American servicemen, 675,000 Americans overall, and 40 million people worldwide in the space of little more than two years
finances and the federal government
Finances and the Federal Government
  • World War I cost the United States over $33 billion in 1918 dollars
  • Americans were disgruntled to learn that their liberty bonds had lost 20 percent of their face value; a War Revenue Act of 1917 had boosted the tax rate
  • The Federal government was organized to combat food shortages, promote scientific advancement, and take over operation of the railroads
suffrage for women
Suffrage for Women
  • In the fall of 1918, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress for support in the quest for women’s right to vote
  • While many still opposed women suffrage, careful organization and planning by women’s clubs produced demonstrations and arguments that the government could no longer ignore
  • The Nineteenth Amendment, securing a woman’s right to vote, was ratified in 1920