The Aeneid • Author: Virgil • Culture: Roman • Time: 70-19 BC • Genre: epic poetry • Characters to Know: Aeneas, Dido, Anchises, Ascanius, Venus, Juno, Jupiter • Basic Themes: Good overcoming Evil, Coming of Age, Accepting Responsibility, Duty before Desire
Why the Aeneid? • The emperor Augustus told virgil to write a national epic as part of his propaganda program, to celebrate the new golden age of peace that Augustus’ reign ushered in. • Background: Rome’s civil wars, death of the Republic.
Narrative Structure • Books 1-6: The Odyssean part Aeneas as a wandering hero like Odysseus. His god-sent mission is to found a new city. Essentially, once the Greeks sack Troy, Aeneas and some Trojan ships escape to establish a ‘new’ Troy. • Books 7-12: The Iliadic part Aeneas and the Trojans at war with the Italians & their allies.
Why an EPIC? • Aeneas embodies the values of Roman society. • Aeneas is a larger-than-life character. • Written in Poetic Language. • Written in Elevated Language.
The Roman Hero: Aeneas QUALITIES ADMIRED BY ROME AND EMBODIED BY AENEAS: • Stoic- not given to emotional swings. • Pious- Gives deference and respect to the gods. • Duty Driven- pursues his duty to his own detriment. • Unselfish- puts his own desires after those of his society
Aeneas on Himself • Book 1.500-505 “I am Aeneas, duty-bound (translation of the Latin ‘pius’), and known above high air of heaven by my fame, carrying with me in my ships our gods of hearth and home, saved from the enemy. I look for Italy to be my fatherland, and my descent is from all-highest Jove. . . I followed the given fates.”
Book 1: Aeneas in Carthage • In lines 13-49, we learn why Aeneas suffers - the wrath of Juno. • Two reasons: • Troy (Judgment of Paris, a past event: Paris didn’t pick Juno/Hera as the loveliest goddess, he chose Venus) • Carthage (she knew Rome would conquer this, her favorite city, a future event)
The Wrath of Juno • Angry, Juno asks Aeolus [master of wind] to drive the Trojan ships off course, shipwreck them if possible. • The bribe: she offers Aeolus the lovely nymph Deiopeia • Result: one shipwreck before Neptune calms the sea.
Arrival in Libya • Aeneas puts into shore with only 7 ships from his fleet. • He gives a pep talk to his men, recalling the horrors they have already survived (Scylla, land of the Cyclopes, etc.)
Venus’ Appeal & Jupiter’s Prophecy • While the Trojans recover onshore, Aeneas’ mother Venus approaches her father Jupiter on behalf of her son • Jupiter had promised that Aeneas would successfully found a new city [Rome]. • Jupiter’s promise: “For these I set no limits, world or time, but make the gift of empire without end . . Lords of the world, the toga-wearing Romans”
Dido and the Carthaginians • Jupiter sends Mercury down to make Dido and her people receptive to the Trojans. • Meanwhile, Aeneas encounters his disguised mother, who tells him Dido’s history [Dido has sworn never to love or marry since the death of her husband]. • Venus also makes Aeneas very attractive to Dido.
The Temple of Juno • Hidden in a cloud, Aeneas goes into Carthage. He sees the temple of Juno, its walls painted with scenes from the Trojan War. • We know from this that the Carthaginians are civilized; the Carthaginians are very sympathetic to the events his city Troy suffered.
Dido Assaulted by Eros • While Venus & Cupid infect Dido with eros for Aeneas, Aeneas tells her and the Carthaginians about the Fall of Troy and his wanderings.
Book II • The Fall of Troy from the Trojan POV. The ghost of Hektor, the gods fighting, death of Creusa (Aeneas’ Wife).
Book III • Aeneas’ wanderings, from Thrace, Crete, Sicily, to Carthage
Two Mythic Traditions • Greek: The Trojan War in 1250 BCE. • Roman: Romulus and Remus, suckled by the she-wolf, founded Rome in 753 BCE.
Book IV: Dido/Cleopatra • This book troubles many modern readers, since it seems to portray Aeneas in a bad light. • May represent Cleopatra and Ceasar/Mark Antony • Book focuses on the destructive and uncontrollable nature of love [against stoicism] • Women as manipulative creatures in love • Great persons can be brought low
DISTRIBUTE HANDOUT READ THE TEXT and ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ON YOUR OWN PAPER. MAKE SURE YOU READ THE SUMMARY PORTIONS IN ITALICS.
Book V & VI: Sicily The Underworld • Return to Sicily to honor A’s father • Like Odysseus before him, A goes to the underworld; his mission is to speak with his father. • His guide: the Sibyl, a female prophet. • The geography of Hades [right Elysium left Tartarus & water of Lethe] • Prophecy of the greatness of Rome.
Aeneas Meets . . . • Dido, who treats him much as Ajax treated Odysseus [ignores him] • Trojan War dead (just as Odysseus does) • Mythical monsters, old-time gods (the Furies, the Titans), famous sinners (Ixion, etc) • Anchises gives Aeneas a tour of the souls not yet born - the great heroes of Roman history from Romulus to Julius Caesar to Augustus.
Book VII and VIII: Travel & Evander • Aenas sails near Circe’s island, Neptune pushes them to safety. Juno is angered. • Aeneas makes a pact with King Latinus of the Latins, to marry his daughter to Lavinia, who is already engaged to Turnus. In Book 7, war broke out between the Trojans and the Latins over this broken engagement. • In Book 8, Aeneas sails up the Tiber to get allies. He meets Evander, a Greek king, whose kingdom is on the future site of Rome.
Books IX-XI : War with Turnus • Book 9 – Juno warns Turnus that Evander is A’s ally. Fighting breaks out – Turnus lives. • Book 10 – Jove/Jupiter angry the Trojans not peaceful in Italy as he promised. Venus pleads for her son’s rights. Juno pleads they have no rights. • Fighting continues on Earth – Juno saves Turnus. • Book 11 – Aeneas wants peace – says he will fight Turnus in single combat – Turnus continues the general fighting.
Book XII: Death of Turnus • Juno strikes a deal with Jupiter [Trojans will lose their name: become Latins]. • Turnus finally faces Aeneas • When he has been wounded, Turnus makes an appeal to Aeneas for mercy, he receives none as Turnus gave none