Tmwk Ch 25 1. Graph pg 560 What topic is the graph depicting? Share one pattern or trend from the graph. When did more than half live in the city? 2. Diagram Pg 561 Describe how it was to live in a dumbbell tenement.
Megalopolis • 1870: 40 million pop. • 1900: 80 million (pop. Doubles) • Pop in city triples • 1900 NY: 3.5 million ppl • Skyscrapers: Architect Louis Sullivan; Helped by electric elevator • Mass Transit: electric trolleysenable people to live further from work; leads to development of suburbs
Appeal of the City • Jobs • Electricity, Indoor Plumbing • Telephones • Department Stores: Consumerism - people purchase many types of goods • Entertainment and progress
Humanity Compressed • Rich vs Poor: widening class divisions • Poor moved to treeless Ghettoes; rich moved to Green Suburbs • “Dumbbell” Tenements – very little ventilation, unhealthy conditions. • Slums: “Lung Block” • City neighborhoods became segregated by race, ethnicity, and social class. • Issues: impure water, uncollected garbage
TMWK 3A. Pg 570 Graph What countries did the “Old Immigration” come from? Describe these countries in geographic terms. 3B. What countries did the “New Immigration” come from? Describe these countries in geographic terms. 3C. Around what time period did more “New Immigrants” start to migrate to the U.S. compared to “Old Immigrants?” 3D. Why did “New Immigration” decline during the time period of 1911-1920? Add OI
New Immigration • By 1880s: increase in 5 million immigrants each decade • Until 1880s: most immigrants came from British Isles and Western Europe. • “New Immigrants”: By 1880s+, many came from Southern and Eastern Europe - mostly illiterate, poor, few came from democratic govts. • Urban political bosses: “unofficial govts” who took care of immigrant needs in exchange for their loyalty – provided jobs, found them housing, helped build schools, parks, hospitals. • Little Italy’s: Many new immigrants settled into communities of their ethnic groups, maintaining language and customs.
New Immigration (Cont.) Why Immigrate to US? • “American Letters” written to Europe describing the opportunities and luxuries in America. • Growing European population and job competition. • American Industrialists advertising Am. jobs in Europe. They wanted low wage labor, railroads wanted buyers for their land grants. • Better opportunities: jobs, free from military conscription and religious persecution. • Persecution of minorities, especially Jews, in Europe. Fears • Many Americans feared new immigrants wouldn’t assimilate, would out-vote them, take their jobs.
TMWK 4. Graph Pg 562 Explain two trends or patterns between the years 1870-1940. Add OI
Reactions to Immigration • Social Gospel: Protestant Christian movement bringing to light issues of new immigrants and industrial society - social justice, poverty, liquor, crime, race tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools • Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden: church should tackle social issues. • Role of church = salvation of humankind and promotion of social righteousness. • Abolition of child labor. • Reduction of work hrs for Moms. • Ended 12 hr work day at U.S. Steel Corp. • Promoted society over the individual. • Promoted socialism as an answer to modern societal ills. • Prepared the path leading to Progressivism.
TMWK 5. Pg 568 Who was Jane Addams?
Settlement Houses • Jane Addams 1st Am. Women awarded Nobel Peace Prize; estab Hull House: most prominent American settlement house - brought opportunities for immigrants • 2,000 visitors per week • Offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants, child care services for working Moms • Activities: gymnasium, girls club, swimming pool, etc.
Settlement Houses Cont. • These houses became centers of women’s activism and social reform. • Others follow Addam’s lead such as: -Lillian Wald - Henry Street Settlement in NY -Florence Kelley – crusader for women, children, blacks, consumers • New careers created in Social Work - many women and some men find work in this new field. • 1 million women join workforce in 1890’s
TMWK 6. Pg 569 Text Box Describe the viewpoint of E.A. Ross regarding immigrants. 7. Pg 570 Political Cartoon What is the cartoon depicting - Is it for or against something or someone? 8. Pg 571 Quote: What idea is Pres Cleveland espousing?
Nativism (Anti-Foreignism) • New Immigrants seen as culturally and religiouslyexotic • Feared new immigrants would outnumber and outvote Anglo-Saxon’s • Mongrelization of society: Fear that “inferior Southern Europeans” would mix with fair Anglos • Believed that these immigrants brought down wages • Created Bosses (Tweed & Tammany Hall): Took care of immigrants by trading jobs and services for votes. • Imported anti-capitalist ideas of socialism and communism
Nativism • Anti-Immigrant Legislation • 1882 – paupers, criminals, convicts denied entry • 1882 – Chinese immigrants banned • 1885 – Contract labor banned (wage protection) • Later laws prohibited insane, polygamists, prostitutes, alcoholics, anarchists, and those carrying contagious disease. • 1886 – Statue of Liberty • “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore” • Many Americans felt they were being stuck with the wretched refuse of Europe.
TMWK 9. Pg 576 Chart What is the topic of the chart? What are 2 patterns or trends shown by the chart? Outside Information (OI): 10. Pg 585 Chart What is the topic of the chart? What are 2 patterns or trends shown by the chart?
Education • Darwin 1859 Origin of Species: belief in natural selection - gained popularity; by 1920 it was scientific orthodoxy • Caused division in the church • Some call it Evolution, and others say it’s God. • 1870 Compulsory Grade School Education • 1900: 6000 High Schools • Illiteracy Rates: 1870 – 20%, 1900 -10.7% • Non-whites – 44% • Rise of Colleges - College provided new opportunities for women and Blacks • 1862 Morrill Act- government gave public land for support of education
Education Cont. • 1887 Hatch Act: extended Morrill Act; supported agricultural experimentation • Led to Universities: Texas A&M, Univ of CA, Ohio State Univ, Univ. of Chicago (Rockefeller) • John’s Hopkins 1876 – Pioneered concept of modern research university- Graduate School • Moved to Fact Based – Less Moral • Harvard Motto changed - from Christo Et Ecclesiae (for Christ and the church) to Veritas (truth)
Literary America • Libraries – Andrew Carnegie gave $60 million for construction of libraries. • Newspapers – Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst • Yellow Journalism – Sensational, exaggerated newspaper stories aimed at increasing circulation -rumors replaced real stories (Joseph Pulitzer) • Magazines: promoted various viewpoints; spread ideas about society and proposed ideas for solving society’s ills. • Edward Bellamy – 1888 Novel Looking Backward - supporting socialist movement, sold over 1 million copies • Mark Twain – Novels: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn), The Awakening (feminist novel about adultery, suicide, and female ambition)
Women in the City • Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Women and Economics: called women to abandon their independent status and contribute to the community. Advocated centralized nurseries and cooperative kitchens to facilitate women’s participation in the work force. • 1890 National American Woman Suffrage Association: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. • CarrieChapman Catt – suffrage movement leader: Believed women should get to vote if they continue to leave their homes and work in the public. • Wyoming Territory 1869: 1st to grant unrestricted suffrage to women. • Ida B. Wells –Journalistand editor: leader of anti-lynching crusade
Temperance Movement • Drinking alcohol increased during Civil War • Certain immigrant groups used to drinking alcohol • 1869 National Prohibition Party: temperance movement • 1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union: worked for temperance and suffrage – Leaders Frances E. Willard and Carrie Nation • 1893: Anti Saloon League: leader in temperance • Temperance leads to 18th Amendment (1919). National Prohibition of manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors is forbidden. (Later repealed by 21st Amendment)
TMWK 11. Pg 575 Left picture: What did Booker T. Washington talk about in his speech in New Orleans? 12. Pg 575 Who was W.E.B. Du Bois?
Booker T Washington • 44% of nonwhite were illiterate in 1900. • Booker T. Washington: ex-slave and educator – avoided the issue of inequality and accepted segregation; focused on the education of the Black community and improvements economically. • Established Tuskegee Institute-private college for Blacks. • Believed in Self-Help Approach – taught black students trades to give them economic security. • Acknowledged Racism, but didn’t challenge it. (He avoided the issue of racial equality)
W.E.B. Du Bois • Mixed race: African, French, Dutch, Indian • 1st African-American to earn PhD at Harvard • Demanded complete equality for Blacks (social and economic) • Believed most talented tenth should lead fight for equality • 1910 founded NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. African civil rights organization to eliminate discrimination • Age 93: renounced U.S. citizenship, moved to Africa.
TMWK13. During the mid to late 1800’s, what social changes and/or movements took place?