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Analyzing Economical Geography

Analyzing Economical Geography

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Analyzing Economical Geography

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  1. Analyzing Economical Geography AP Princeton Review Human Geography

  2. Sectors of Production • The economy can be divided into several different categories known as sectors • Can be grouped by its stage in the production process, from primary production onwards • Three to five categories • Can be grouped by the types of products or services they create

  3. Sector Categories by Stage of Production • Primary production • Agriculture, mining, energy, forestry, and fisheries • Extraction of natural resources from the earth • Secondary production • The processing of raw materials drawn from the primary sector • Secondary productions reflect all forms of manufacturing • Tertiary production • Transportation, wholesaling, and retailing of finished goods to consumers • Can include other types of services that could be categorized as quaternary or quinary • Quaternary and quinary are categorized as services in the tertiary sector • Quaternary production • Wholesaling, finance, banking, insurance, real estate, advertising, and marketing • “business services” • Quinary production • Retailing, tourism, entertainment, communications, government, or semi-public services such as health, education, and utilities • “Consumer services”

  4. Agriculture • Economically, the combined cash value of what is produced is measured • Not the volume or weight of the goods • In less developed portions of the world, subsistence agriculture is very common, with agriculture supporting the family and local people • In more developed countries, farming is most commonly done on a commercial basis

  5. Commodity Chain • Exist from the small-scale, family-based producers selling directly from the farm or through farmers’ markets to transnational supply networks selling to an international base

  6. Natural Resources • Mining and energy extraction can be valuable depending on the global commodity prices • Oil based economies can rise and crash with radical price changes • Price volatility is difficult for both producers and consumers • Fisheries and timber markets are not as volatile, but have increased in price and value over the years to reduced supply • Due to increasingly protected natural resources, companies must use more technology and larger processing facilities to remain profitable and meet growing consumer demand

  7. Renewability • Resources can be classified by their renewability • Minerals and fossil fuels are nonrenewable • The earth cannot reproduce them • Some mineral products can be recycled • In some cases, it is cheaper to buy scrap metal to recycle than to mine new metal • With the exception of hydroelectricity, alternative energy sources as often much more expensive to harness than fossil fuels • This makes them less common • Alternative energy is used to shift energy usage away from nonrenewable resources

  8. Sustainability • Fisheries and forestry involve renewable resources • We rely on the sustainable use of the resource • Fish cannot be overfished, and forests cannot be cut without replanting • Using large nets for fishing and clear cutting of forests are not sustainable practices

  9. Manufacturing • Factory-made products far out-value agricultural based products • Manufactured goods are farm products and natural resources that have been taken through value-added processing • The more complex and technology-driven the manufacturing is, the more expensive the final product is • The utility and demand of the product can influence value • Manufacturing can be divided into several groups • Durable- goods that are intended for use of more than a year • Greater value and represent a more lucrative form of production • Nondurable- goods that are intended for use of less than a year • Can also be divided by product type • Resource processing- oil refineries, metals, plastics, chemicals, lumber, paper, food and beverage, concrete and cement, glass • Textiles- clothing, shoes and leather products, artificial fibers and thread • Furniture- home, office, bedding • Appliances- home appliances, commercial equipment, power tools, lighting • Transport- automotive, rail, aerospace, shipbuilding, recreational vehicles, • Health- pharmaceuticals, medical devices, personal care products • Technology- computers and laptops, servers, industrial control devices, phones, television and audio entertainment

  10. Services • Intangible products • Most valuable form of economic production • Not all services are valued equally • Low-benefit services are sectors where the labor force tends to be hourly employees who receive few if any additional work benefits • EX: hotel and food services, retail, customer services, contract agricultural labor, and construction • High-benefit services are sectors in which pay tends to be salaried and include additional work benefits including health, dental, vision, vacation, sick days, etc… • Benefits are provided by other high-benefit service industries such as insurance companies • EX: business services, health care, government, and education • Service sectors organized by type of firm • Retailing, labor and workforce services, hospitality, government, education, transportation and delivery services, environmental, construction, engineering, utilities, media, advertising and marketing, medical and health care, finance and banking, insurance, real estate, accounting, legal services, computer, and research and development

  11. Deindustrialization • The shifting away from manufacturing as the main source of economic production • In the 1970s and ’80s, when deindustrialization was occurring across North America and West Europe, millions of factory workers lost jobs and many old industrial cities suffered from the economic downturn • Workforce had to adjust to new service sector employment that paid less and had fewer benefits compared to factory jobs • Manufacturing had to focus on highly priced goods to keep profits and investments up amid foreign competition and to keep the remaining First World manufacturing labor force paid and employed • Services became important as investors in new businesses are looking to maximize their returns on investment • Services are the most valuable investments

  12. Levels of Development • Countries can be categorized based on their level of economic development • First World • Industrialized or service based • Free market, high level of productivity value per person and a high quality of life • EX: U.S., Canada, Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Bahrain

  13. Levels of Development • Second World • Describes Communist countries • Cuba and North Korea • Still have centrally planned economies • Former Communist states that are restructuring their economy to free-market systems • Newly industrialized countries that are still controlled by Communist parties, but have adapted free-market reforms • China and Vietnam

  14. Levels of Development • Third World • Mainly agricultural and resource-based economies that have low levels of productivity and a low quality of life • Some Third World countries • Made an economic shift towards industrialization and urbanization • Remain firmly in a rural, agricultural economy • The poorest Third World countries • Haiti, Niger, Malawi, Tanzania, Madagascar, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan

  15. Levels of Development • Fourth World • Experienced an economic crisis that has immobilized the national economy • Crash in banking system, devaluation of currency, failed taxation system, or events that have disrupted the economy such as warfare or natural disasters • Sierra Leone and Liberia • Civil wars • Myanmar • Cyclone

  16. Levels of Development • Fifth World • Lack both a functioning economy and have no formal national government • Somalia and the West Sahara

  17. More Developed Countries(MDCs) and Less Developed Countries(LDCs) • First and Second World are considered MDCs • Third, Fourth, and Fifth World are considered LDCs • Even if they are NICs • Dividing Line • $10,000 GNP per capita • Above- MDCs • Below- LDCs

  18. Newly Industrialized Countries • Third World states that have economics that have made a distinct shift away from agriculture and towards manufacturing • Industrialization is a long-term process that can last longer in larger countries • Constant process of building infrastructure that facilitate the construction and operation of factories • Rapid population growth and are located on the border of stage two and three on the Demographic Transition Model • Industrialization and Urbanization

  19. A list of NICs

  20. NIC Development Funding • Funding to develop infrastructure and factories can come from • Internal sources • Foreign aid • Provided by donor states in First World Economies; do not expect money to be returned • Donations rarely go to building for-profit businesses • Instead, it provides the means to create schools, nutrition, health programs, etc… • Can also be a technology transfer • Technical knowledge, training, and equipment is provided to NIC governments to increase business efficiency • Foreign direct investment(FDI)

  21. Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) • Money from private investors or investment firms that are looking to earn a profit • Use money to start a new business or build a new factory in a NIC • Over time, investors are paid back plus a portion of the profits • If unprofitable, investor may gain less money back, or nothing at all • In cases of high demand, investors can have returns of 10 to 15 percent within a few years

  22. Development Loans • To attract FDI, some NICs seek international development loans from organizations such as the World Bank • Loans are most often given to advance infrastructure • These new services can charge fees(trains, toll roads, etc…) that will be used to pay back the loan • Criticism • The loans don’t make the positive impact on the economy as intended • Costly and significant environmental problems

  23. India, a Growing NIC • Until the 1990s, India’s exports have been focused on manufactured goods such as textiles and steel • During the 1990s, high-tech markets in software development and computing services began to open in India because of India’s comparative advances • A country has the ability or resources to produce a good or service at less cost and more efficiently than other states • India’s colonial history with Britain gives India several advantages against other competitors • Access to the American technology markets • High amount of English speakers in India • Large number of educated workers • Dell and Microsoft have opened factories and customer service centers in India recently • These are examples of off-shoring of computer services from the United States to NICs

  24. China’s Demand for Energy • Industrial development and the newly earned wealth of Chinese citizens have combined to create a large demand for energy in industry and transportation • Coal is the primary source for electric production • High oil demand; fuels cars and trucks • China does not have much oil and has invested in oil exploration and production in Third World countries • Problems • Pollution • Acid rain, smog • Greenhouse gas emissions

  25. North versus South analogy • Used to describe the developed world(North) and the less developed countries(South) • Inaccurate because Australia and New Zealand are First World countries that are in the Southern Hemisphere • Most of the world’s LDCs are on or north of the equator

  26. The Old Asian Tigers • The term “Asian Tiger” is used to describe the industrial economies of Asia that have been aggressive in terms of economic growth rates and their ability to compete with consumers • The Old Asian Tigers were seen as free-market bastions against the spread of Communism • The U.S. and Britain had no choice but to give foreign aid money to support democracy in the region • By the 1970s, the Asian countries had become competitive with the United States and Britain for global markets in manufacturing goods • By the 1980s, efficient factories and a focus on product quality in Japan and Korea created significant market share in the American auto and electronics markets • Foreign competition and the oil shocks of the 1970s have caused the deindustrialization in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe

  27. The Old Asian Tigers

  28. The New Asian Tigers • Manufacturing development was mainly funded through FDI that came from the United States and Britain as well as from the Old Asian Tigers • Profitable investments • The New Asian Tigers offered • Cheap labor • Low-cost land and resources • Little labor and environmental regulations • In low-end product lines, such as clothing or shoes, the New Asian Tigers proved to be the only profitable manufacturing locations • China had the lowest costs and a large labor force

  29. The New Asian Tigers

  30. The Asian Economic Crisis(1997) • A banking crash in South Korea resulted in a credit crisis • Because of banks and investors holding back on industrial loans and investment • Money to develop new factories and infrastructure disappeared • Prompted the deindustrialization of the Old Asian Tigers • Payrolls were cut and workers were laid off by the hundreds of thousands • Like First World economies, the Old Asian Tigers now focus on services rather than manufacturing • Manufacturing still exists, but only for high profit manufactured goods such as cars and medical devices

  31. Measures of Development • Help us to understand the levels of development and measure uneven development in various countries

  32. Gross Domestic Product(GDP) • The dollar value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year • Measures the total volume of a country’s economy • Formula • Goods + Services

  33. Gross National Income(GNI) • The dollar value of all goods and services produced in a country plus the dollar value of exports minus imports in the same year • Adjusts for national wealth lost when imported goods are purchased from abroad • In countries where export value exceeds import value, there is a trade surplus • In countries where import value exceeds export value, there is a trade deficit • Formula • Goods + Services + (Exports – Imports)

  34. Per Capita • Means “for every head” in Latin; for every person • Calculated by dividing the volume of the economy by the population • GDP per capita- (Goods + Services) / Population • GNI per capita- [(Goods + Services) + (Exports – Imports)] / Population • Answer calculated is not an indicator of the average salary of each worker • Answer calculated is a measure of the country’s collective wealth or productivity and indicates a relative standard of living

  35. Gross National Income Purchasing Power Parity(GNI PPP) • An estimate that takes into account the differences in prices for countries • Gross National Income per capita can make First World countries seem more prosperous and can make Third World countries seem less prosperous • Doesn’t factor the cost of living in each country

  36. Human Development Index(HDI) • Designed by the United Nations to measure the level of development of states based on social indicators and economic productivity • Indexed score ranges from 0.00 to 1.00 by combining GDP per capita, the average literacy rate, average level of education, and total life expectancy

  37. Economic Indicator Data for Selected Countries • Recommended to know more than three of the above countries’ statistics • At minimum, one MDC, one NIC, and one LDC

  38. The Gini Coefficient • Measures the level of income disparity between the country’s richest and poorest population groups on a scale from 0 to 100 • High numbers indicate a wide gap between the rich and the poor and suggest problems with wealth distribution • Low numbers indicate a large middle class population where wealth is more equally divided

  39. The Gender-Related Development Index(GDI) • Uses same indicators that calculate HDI, except it replaces GDP per capita with income • The male and female data is compared by dividing the female score by the male score • The closer the result is to 1.00, the role of women in society is greater • The closer the result is to 0.00, the role of women in society is minimal • Can be an effective indicator of social development

  40. Women in Development • Women work more hours/day than men in every country in the world except in Anglo America and Australia • Women in the paid workforce are also growing in numbers across the world in both developed and developing countries and regions • Role in society is improving as opportunities for education, childcare, and maternity benefits increase • In Third World countries, access to microcredit give women the chance to start their own business and provide for their families • The UN developed a mandate called the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) designed to erase poverty by 2015 • These eight development goals promote gender equality and an empowering of women in the work force

  41. Rostow’s Stages of Growth • Developed by Walter Rostow in the 1950s • Proposed that countries went through five stages of growth between agricultural and service-based economies • Assumed that each country had some form of a comparative advantage that could be utilized in international trade and fund the economy • There are five stages

  42. Rostow’s Stages of Growth • Traditional society • Economy is focused on primary production • Limited wealth is spent internally on items that do not promote economic development • Low technical knowledge • Preconditions for takeoff • The country’s leadership begins to invest the country’s wealth in infrastructure that promotes economic development and international trade relations • More technical knowledge; helps to stimulate the economy • Takeoff • Economy begins to shift focus onto a limited number of industrial exports • Labor force begins to switch from agriculture to manufacturing • Technical knowledge is gained through industrial production and business management • Drive to maturity • Technical advancements diffuse throughout the country • Advancements in industrial production • Workers become increasingly skilled and educated, and fewer people are engaged in primary production • Age of mass consumption • Industrial trade economy develops where highly specialized production has a major role in the economy • Technical knowledge and education is high • Agriculture is mechanized, thus employing a smaller work force

  43. Criticism of Rostow’s Stages of Growth • Based on the historical development of many First World, industrialized countries • Not all countries have had the ability to utilize comparative advantages • Colonial legacy, government corruption, and other factors are not included in Rostow’s theory • He assumed that all countries could progress through the stages • However, the world economy leaves many countries behind as foreign aid mostly goes to only the most developed of the NICs

  44. Dependency Theory • States that most LDCs(including all NICs) are dependent on trade owned factories, foreign direct investment, and technology from MDCs to provide employment and infrastructure • A continuous cycle of dependency would continue, giving no real gains to the LDCs • Concerns were first raised by economist Raul Prebisch in 1950 • Stated that money made by LDCs from the sale of manufactured goods and natural resources is used to pay off loans and to buy manufactured products • In the end, LDCs are left with little money, MDCs, richer • Thus continuing the cycle of dependency • Dependency creates additional economic risks, as Third World economies are also subject to the levels of demand for LDC-made products and the global economy staggers • If demand and investment decline, LDCs suffer job layoffs, and loan payments are not able to be made • Risk is magnified if the LDC is a one-commodity nation • Can be catastrophic for economy and harm the quality of life

  45. Breaking the Cycle of Dependency • Various methods, the purpose of these methods is to gain national wealth that is recycled in the country’s economy to help local businesses and improve the quality of life through funding for public services and utility infrastructure • Internalization of economic capital • Requires companies to deposit profits from factories in LDC banks and invest locally • Used to prevent capital flight • When earnings are sent to banks in First World countries where they cannot be used to advance local development • Wealthier citizens may be required to keep their money in national banks instead of off-shore banks • Import Substitution • Instead of buying products from First World countries, LDCs would produce these products where profits would then be put into local economy

  46. Breaking the Cycle of Dependency • Nationalization of natural resource-based industries • International mining companies take away minerals and oil that could be sold by local companies • With the expelling of such companies, profit made from the local companies can be used for local economic development • Profit-sharing agreements • In China and Vietnam(and a few other countries), foreign companies are given permission to build new factories on land leased to them by the government • In exchange, foreign companies share a portion of the profit • Technology development programs • Using funds to invest in technological equipment and employee training for local manufacturers • These companies can then compete globally for contracts to produce goods as sub-contractors to First World corporations • Factory profits stay with the local companies

  47. Tourism • Countries can gain large inputs of wealth from foreign countries without having to export manufactured goods • Tourism countries must have hospitality and be viewed as safe from crime and warfare • To attract tourists, the country must have some degree of historical value, natural beauty, sport recreation centers, or combinations of these • In the past 20 years, ecotourism has become popular • Rainforests, marine reef, savannah grassland, and polar habitats have became prime tourist locations

  48. Free-Trade Agreements • Free-trade zones have made regional economies of multiple states stronger and have lead to the development of their less developed neighbors • Helped former Communist states develop their free-market economies faster • NAFTA Treaty • Signed in 1991; full effect in 2001 • Full removal of tariffs between Mexico, United States, and Canada • Benefitted Mexico • Allowed several hundred firms to build factories and contract with local firms in Mexico to produce goods • Maquiladoras, northern factory cities, have grown rapidly in terms of population and manufacturing • Tijuana, Mexicali, Ciudad Juarez, etc… • Helped to improve quality of life

  49. Free-Market Reforms • In the 1980s, Communist states began to reform the command economy • Reforms • Allowed farmers to sell surplus agricultural goods in local and regional markets for profit • Allowed people to open privately owned businesses • Free movement of labor • The ability to purchase private real estate • Allowing foreign companies the option of opening factories and retail services in these countries

  50. China and Vietnam • China established the first special economic zones(SEZs) in 1980 • Foreign companies were allowed to build factories in coastal port cities • SEZs are a type of export processing zone, port locations where foreign firms are given tax privileges to provide incentives for trade • By the late 1990s, all the coastal provinces in China and Vietnam had been opened to foreign manufacturing firms • Labor, land, and utilities were in large demand by transnational corporations wanting to maximize profits, which would be shared with the Chinese and Vietnamese government • China has been able to integrate itself into the global economy through their corporations that have purchased Western product lines, such as Whirlpool • Chinese banking and financial firms increase trade integration with export markets • Especially in the US; US sells some of its treasury bonds to China